Indefinite or non-specific article

Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity
or marker


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No articles identified, only demonstratives. Allin, 1976: 198-200 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 88-90 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no info Articles/demonstratives not discussed among other word classes. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No articles. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 50, 78-79 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes This is a reduced form of the numeral 'one.' Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes This artcile has several functions, including the number "one," "only," and "another." Aikhenvald, 2003: 215 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 356 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no When referring to an unspecified object, nothing is used. Payne 1981; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Articles appear to be implied or perceived through context. There are no articles in the language itself. Zamponi 2003:21-35 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:23-68 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes "[The article] is generally used with proper names and heavenly bodies... and nouns that refer to weather phenomena." Danielsen 2007: p312 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 304-309 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003:102 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Article for definite/indefinite is the same. It can be interpreted as definite or indefinite, depending on the context. Seifart - 2005:125 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982: 64-68 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no no articles Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 151 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no The cardinal numeral inʔgui "one" is used as a marked or inefiniteness Frank 1990:33 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-96 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 1998:68 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no info Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:231-321 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 73 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes borrowing? Silva 2011:180 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.13 Daniel Smith There are two pronouns in Huitoto that are indefinite in gender but not in number.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no indefinite pronoun Weir 1984:89 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004:355-361 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes The three general classifiers are used to refer to nonspecific items and frequently are employed to form new expressions for foreign objects; -yẽ, -pẽ, and dõhõ 'thing'. Miller 1999, p. 43-44 Amanda Novak; notes by Chris Clack The article dipa- seems to have the meaning of the indefinite article 'a'
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.73-75 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes There is an additional suffix -makʰa 'thing' that is used to refer to individual objects without shape sorters. Cook & Criswell 1993, p.25 Chris Clack
Barasano yes There are three general classifiers frequently used to form new expressions for foreign objects. i.e. 'thing' Jones & Jones 1991, p.56 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Retuarã has no definite or indefinite article. Strom 1992, p.127 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler 1987:119-120 Daniel Smith
Tukano no not distinct from interrogative words Ramirez 1997: 328-330 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no not an article so much as a pronoun Ramirez 1994: 177-178 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:265 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:166 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no ms7.3.1, ms17.2.1 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 74 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 67 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 87-90 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 57-8 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 18 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 357 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 73 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 128 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 3 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 51-52 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 287 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 388 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 9 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 105 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 69 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 274 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 91 0
Dyirbal No 44-5 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 64-65 done 0
Djinang No 99 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 98 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 24-25 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 32 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 84 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 93 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 34 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 30-33 done 0
Katthang no 50 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No 30 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 138 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 26 done 0
Arrernte No 117 0
Kokatha No 49 0
Karajarri No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 104 0
Ritharrngu No 49 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no m286 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 81 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps