Contrastive stress

Phonology - Suprasegmental
Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference?


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 16 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no not discussed as a suprasegmental feature Allin, 1976, p. 72 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 9 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 59 Ana Paula Brandao
Yukuna yes Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 10-11 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes The intensity accent has "phonemic power. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 30 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Pitch-accent, but stress is described as 'phonemic.' Mansen, 1967: p. 56 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald 2003: 37 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1980:710 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:17 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes However, the author acknowledges not having found any minimal pair differantiated by stress Fast 1953:194 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p64 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 231-236 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:32-46 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 214-260 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 140-148 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes certain verb forms have grammatical stress Payne 2012:46 Daniel Smith
Pemon no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:14 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:37 Daniel Valle
Damana no info stress does play a role in the language, but not noted so far whether or not it's contrastive--appears that stress is penultimate Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:27 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:96-9 Daniel Valle However, it seems that stress assignment is different for nouns/andjectives and verbs
Northern Emberá no Mortensen shows some minimal pairs differentiated by stress though (1999:7) Aguirre 1999:19-20; Mortensen 1999:5 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani yes Saint and Pike 1962:24 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Stress is highly predicatable though Levinson 1976:29 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:97 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.83 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info More likely not. However, the author says that stress can go either in the last or penultimate syllable Parker 1965:12 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Binder et all (1995:173) suggest that stress is not contrastive Loewen 1954:17 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979, p.28-61 Kelsey Neely no indication that they have them in description
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 94 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños don't know the answer for this yet
Kaingang no info Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no stress placement is determined by set of rules Minor and Minor 1982. p.6 Christopher Clack Words are accented as they are in Spanish. is predictable
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no stress falls always on the last syll Barbosa 2005:49 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004:13-15 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes The stressed syllable has high pitch. All others have mid or low. Miller 1999, p. 9,15 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 6 Daniel Smith ku'jɑwɨ - 'kujɑwɨ
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993 Amanda Novak
Koreguaje no Gralow & Cook 1984, p.3-4. Cook & Criswell 1993, p.10 Amanda Novak Cook source explicitly states that there is no contrastive stress (but does suggest Gralow for further reading on tone/stress)
Barasano yes Stress is phonemic on the word level, with one primary stress per word. Jones & Jones 1991, p.10 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Stress is phonemic Strom 1992, p.13 Chris Clack
Siona yes It is analyzed as phonemic because of the conditioning effect it has on adjacent vowels and the selection of certain allomorphs of stem inflection Wheeler - 1970:20 Daniel Valle
Tukano no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no Migliazza 1972: p.203 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Migliazza 1972: p.161 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Migliazza 1972: p. 38-39 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Bontkes and Bontkes 2009:11 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:107-24 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes found an example on page 378 (itá - rock, ita - PL particle) Cruz 2011:378 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:25 Daniel Valle
Aché no stress is assigned to the las syllable of the word Rossler 2008:62 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 2-5 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no n99 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 52-3 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 41-44 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no 31 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 11, 12 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 62 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 35 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 21-22 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 16 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no 5 done 0
Uradhi No 322 Y 0
Paakantyi no 45 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 41-42 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no d34 done 0
Nhanta no 93-94 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa No 41 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no 39 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 25 done 0
Martuthunira no 43-47 done 0
Marrgany No 295 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 35 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 384 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no 16-7b Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 47 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 41 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no xx done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 67 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 2 0
Dyirbal No 274 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 22 done 0
Djinang No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 30 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 14 done 0
Bularnu no 9 Done-Austin 0
Biri no 13 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 35 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 17 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 67 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 67 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 25 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 7 done 0
Katthang no 27 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 134-135 done 0
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 2 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 295 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres no K81 127-8 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 21 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 8 done 0
Arrernte No 76 0
Kokatha No 25 0
Karajarri No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 27 0
Ritharrngu No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 20 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 25 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 36 Y2 0
Narungga No 39 done 0
Tharrkari No 5 0
Wajarri No 31 0
Warungu no 1 0
Adnyamathanha no Y2 0
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:432 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001:86 Patience Epps