Negatives: auxiliary verb

Simple Clauses - Negation
Negatives: auxiliary verb


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 131 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes ma- is a "privative" auxiliary. Allin, 1976: 215-216 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 33 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 204 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain (2000) say that the verb noholaa means 'no ser, no estar, no haber.' This verb takes person marking (in the unmarked, 'general' tense), which, interestingly, are different than those that attach to regular verbs. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 804 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 400 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1982:19 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:38 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:179-81 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p338 Mitz Perez
Nanti no There is a negative existential verb, but this isn't a general negation strategy. Michael, 2008. p. 378-385 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:51-2 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Green and Green 1972:42-3 Daniel Valle
Yine no info no discussion of negation Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989:100 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:72 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 55 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012:353-362 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 237, 238 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:120-121 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:63-8 Daniel Valle
Damana no Williams 1993:90-93 Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:67; Queixalós - 2000:14, 25 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993:48 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:324-6, 481-2 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes This is the most common way of negation Mortensen 1999:98 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974:39-40 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:996 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, 110 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:193 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:22 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:75, 93 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Sánchez and Castro 1977:66 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 100 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 277 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.72-75 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 7 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 315 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.60 Chris Clack shortened versions also used (bã)
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.61-62 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The negative verb bã is also used to negate nominalizations, as well as sentences, in which there is no explicit subject. Jones & Jones 1991, p.127 Chris Clack The negative verb bã is also used to negate nominalizations, as well as sentences, in which there is no explicit subject.
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.147 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:151 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes negation can be encoded with a negative aux verb West and Welch 2004: 23, 116; Ramirez 1997: 151-153 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes used with the negated future Ramirez 1994: 313-314 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.102 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 82 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:328-9 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:42-3 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:531 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 64 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 95-6 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 156-158 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 135 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 75, 77 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 141-2 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 56 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 57 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 381 Y 0
Paakantyi no 228 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 239 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 14 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 68 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 343 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 124 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 436 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 59 wordlist done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 151 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 334-5 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 107 0
Dyirbal No 117-8 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 110-111 done 0
Djinang No 146 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 46 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 56-7 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 81 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 103 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 97-98 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 51 done 0
Katthang yes 90 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No 48 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 343 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 102 Done- 1
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no 109 done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 98 done 0
Arrernte No 175 0
Kokatha No 36 0
Karajarri No 348 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 244 0
Ritharrngu No 101 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 873 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 54 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 50 Y2 0
Narungga No 57 done 0
Tharrkari No 51 0
Wajarri No 132 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps