Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification
add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Allin, 1976: 100 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no All pronouns can take gender markers. Galindo, 2002: 99, 143 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Elements of noun phrases also are distinguished by gender, but no other pronouns do. Shauer & Shauer 2000: 518 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes No other pronouns are marked for gender, although gender is a category elsewhere. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Other pronouns distinguish gender as well. Aikhenvald, 2003: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:13, 2234 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:21 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no It seems that gender is not distinguished in nouns either Duff-Tripp 1997:61 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:79 Daniel Valle
Baure no "There is no clear distinction of human versus non-human or animate versus inanimate nouns in Baure, even though there remains the subgroup of human nouns with slightly different plural marking." Danielsen 2007: p116-117 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 295 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003:65 Daniel Smith
Yine yes Matteson 1965:93 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:83 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Gender is not distinguished even in the 3rd person. Hall 1988: 282; Escoriaza 1959:12 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Makushi no Carson 1992: 77 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Tosantos 1977:19-20 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:34 Daniel Valle
Kogi no Celedón 1886:13 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bourland 1976:56 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:69 Daniel Valle
Damana no one 3rd person pn; sex is determined by including "man/woman" in the sentence, or by context Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Applies to both singular and plural. Queixalós 1998:21 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no no distinction in any form Buenaventura - 1993:43 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-37 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:42-3 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no However, there is a honorific third person female form Zander:94 Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974:26 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Gender is not distinguished in person pronouns Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Gender is also distinguished in nouns Montes 2004b:61 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Gender is not distinguished in pronouns Mejía 2000:91 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes only in 3-1 and 3-2 Landaburu 1979: 131 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 80 Shannon Dardis The gender distinction is not shown in any of the pronouns, not even the 3rd person
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes Silva 2011:147 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack gender distinction also found in the dual form (use of these pronouns is rare)
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35 Chris Clack Third person pronouns distinguish masculine and the feminine singular and plural.
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.31-32 Chris Clack
Barasano yes In the third person singular there is an animate/inanimate distinction as well as separate forms for masculine and feminine. Jones & Jones 1991, p.31 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:135-136 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 19-20; Ramirez 1997: 123 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez, 1994: p.112 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47, 49 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: p.149-151 Kelsey Neely no mention of sex distinction
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:300-1 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no no gender distinction Cruz 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:28 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes ms7.2 done 1
Garrwa no 4-5 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri n/a LG165 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta n/a done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a 71-73 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 12 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha n/a Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a 16 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung n/a done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 71 done 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a done-Amalia 0
Warumungu N/A 27 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara n/a r1-6 done 0
Uradhi No 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta yes 194 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no d51 done 0
Nhanta no 76 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 124 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 4 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari n/a 90 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 54 done 0
Martuthunira no 100-109 done 0
Marrgany No 303 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 83 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 446-7 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna N/A 7-8 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu n/a Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 64-5 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 282 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay N/A 30 0
Dyirbal No 50 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 51 done 0
Djinang No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 60-61 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no 49-52 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung yes 28 done 1
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a 110-119 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a 92 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 29-30 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung n/a done 0
Mathi-Mathi n/a done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 23 done 0
Katthang yes 63 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima no 157 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 23 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 87 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes FO 121-2 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info 508 done x
Bandjalang yes 77 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 52 done 0
Arrernte No 101 0
Kokatha N/A 48 0
Karajarri No 81 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 11 0
Ritharrngu No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 907 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman N/A 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga N/A 54 done 0
Tharrkari No 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu n/a 175 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps