Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates

Nominal Categories - Other nominal
i.e. nominal or adjectival


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes The tense and modal markers can occur on nominal predicates Melendez, 1998: 141 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Adjective words and noun roots can be predicates, but these do not have slots for tense or aspect inflection. Allin, 1976: 285-286 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Nouns and adjectives can be predicated, but undergo verbalizing derivation Aikhenvald, 1995: 39-40 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Adjectives can take all inflection that verbs can, while nominals cannot. Galindo, 2002: 238-241, 263-264 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 301 Ana Paula Brandao
Yavitero yes To express past or future time, the same indicators are used as in the verbal conjugation. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 87-88 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no No tense/aspect inflection on the examples given, but it's not explicit. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Nouns have tense, but a noun in the predicate slot can take the clausal tense-evidentiality marking on top of nominal tense. Aikhenvald, 2003: 187 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no Future marking can attach to noun, pronoun, numeral, and particle bases, but this isn't exclusive to predicative constructions (future marker is a clitic). In examples of non-verbal clauses, none have tense/aspect marking. Facundes, 2000: 410, 504 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes adjectives as a predicate may take aspect Mihas 2010:145 Daniel Smith
Maipure no author calls a -mi- suffix tense. Only occurs on nouns Zamponi 2003:27 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:69-124 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes Tense, aspect and mood can occur in a noun in a nominal predicate construction Souza 2008:126 Daniel Valle
Baure no Tense is not marked in verbs either Danielsen 2007:273 Daniel Valle
Nanti no “Roots” can be either adjectival or verbal. When they are “verbal,” they take aspect inflection, but when they are adjectival, they don't. When adjectival predication is used, a copular form is used. Michael, 2008. p. 310-313 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003:59 Daniel Smith
Yine yes on nouns Matteson 1965:97 Daniel Smith
Añun yes not on nominals, but on adjectives and adverbials Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Nominal. Seifart - 2005:72-73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 301, also B.2.5 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Aspect (on nouns). Carson 1982:112 Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no copula takes tense/aspect Payne 2012:303-306 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Guna no only imperfective -na on nouns Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:25-6, 46-59 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes This past tense marker is added to the noun Alphonse 1956:6 Daniel Valle
Damana yes adjectival Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes on nominal Queixalós 1998:82-83 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:241 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:8-14, 33-4 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:5-23 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:231-321 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Actually, in the non-verbal predicates there is no copula. So, neither tense nor person is marked. Zúñiga 2006, p. 225 Daniel Valle
Páez no Rojas:253-7 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:80 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:298-330 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes In nominal predicates tense is marked Mejía 2000:88 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no However, "The word formed by a noun plus a case may at the same time take marker of tense and modality." Giron 2008: p196 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-78 Daniel Smith
Hup yes perfective, inchoative Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 125 Chris Clack
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.65 Chris Clack
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2004 Daniel Smith
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993 no info/not expected
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15-40 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Deverbal nouns are generally formed by a verb root plus tense marker plus a nominalizer suffix. Jones & Jones 1991, p.42 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.41-42 Chris Clack
Siona no info Wheeler - 1987:116-176 Daniel Smith
Tukano no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely probably not
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296, 308-12 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes perfective particle can be cliticized to noun Cruz 2011:463 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes on nouns Vallejos 2010:426 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no done 0
Garrwa yes 72-3 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no LG27 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 79, 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no 76 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 41 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 30 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 334 Y 0
Paakantyi yes Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 190-2 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 314 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 399 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 46 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 74 0
Dyirbal No 55 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 23 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 93; 101 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 16-24 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 292 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 123 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 19 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 77 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 102 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 68 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 43 done 0
Katthang no done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 184 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 22 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 326 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 73 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no 502 done 0
Bandjalang No 39 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 30 done 0
Arrernte No 166 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 6 0
Ritharrngu No 74 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 103-4 0
Bilinarra no 7.2.5 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga No 73 done 0
Tharrkari No 24 0
Wajarri No 39 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps