Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause

Simple Clauses - Predication
Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses.


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 143 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Relative clauses can modify an overt NP in the main clause. Allin, 1976: 362 (footnote 47) Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 47 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo notes that this is "the" way that Piapoco forms relative clauses. Galindo, 2002: 341-342 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 28 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 799 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 537 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no No discussion of how relatively common headed and headless relative clauses are, but much more space is given to headed relative clauses. Facundes, 2000: 561, 583-585 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:1738; Payne 1983:130140 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:206-17 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:398 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Although headless clauses do exist, they only pop up as a subtype of ranked relative clauses, and only when the referent is easily recoverable. Michael, 2008. p. 410 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:70-71 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info Hall 1988: 351-352 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 71 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon no info most likely not Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info more likely not Frank 19885:130-3 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:173-5 Daniel Valle
Damana no Williams 1993:149-54 Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:2-25 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:253-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Internally headed relative clauses are the most common Mortensen 1999:127 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.95-96 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984:63 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p.145 Chris Clack
Cubeo no they more oftenly occure in NPs without any overt head noun Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 152 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no info unclear; depends on whether one considers RCs headed by a classifier to be headless Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.41-42 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.41 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.149 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack
Siona no Not the only form of a relative clause, but dominant. Wheeler - 1987:117-118 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no it's hard to tell which strategy is dominant, but it doesn't appear that this strategy is clearly more used than RCs with heads Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of this
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 133 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:152-9 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no? ms17.1.1.i done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no n240, n60 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 183 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa n/a Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No info done x
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu No 58 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 378 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 130-131 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no 294-301 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 72-73 done 0
Martuthunira no 241-243 done 0
Marrgany No info Done-Amalia x
Kuuk Thaayorre No 533 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no info 181 Done-Jessica x
Kugu-Nganhcara No 430 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no 111 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No info Done-Amalia x
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 361 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 113 0
Dyirbal No 99 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 104 done 0
Djinang No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 207 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri no 61 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 267 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no 135 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija no info Done-Amalia x
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no info done-Amalia x
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no info done-Amalia x
Thanggati no 69-70 done 0
Katthang no info done-Amalia x
Panyjima no 198 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 32 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 227-231 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No info Done-Amalia x
Gunya No info Done-Amalia x
Kunjen No 56 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 133 done 0
Wakaya yes 240 done 1
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 114 done 0
Arrernte No 317 0
Kokatha no info 33 x
Karajarri No 389 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 154, 158 0
Ritharrngu No 111 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 73 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no? 136-7 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 73 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 53 0
Wajarri No 113 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no only possible when coreferential with a previous NP in the discourse Payne and Payne 1990:346 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps