Plural affix on noun

Nominal Categories - Number


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes There is a plural marker on inalienable nouns (animates) Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 63 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes Both dual and plural markers. Allin 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 18 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 103 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Only on animate nouns. Shauer 1978: 43 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Used emphatically, the singular form can be used with either a singular or plural meaning. -nawi is the normal plural marker, -je is used on a small set of nouns (mostly words for humans, but also íkule 'thing, belonging.') Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 143 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Plural may also be marked with the 'definite article,' -kana, which is affixed to the noun. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes -pe seems to be the most regular plural marker, although some clitics have a "built-in" plural? Aikhenvald, 2003: 83 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 260-262 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:106 Daniel Smith
Maipure yes The suffix -nè can only be used when the noun is not inalienably possessed. Zamponi 2003:25 Amanda Meeks In some dialects, pluralization is optional; it is only used when the speaker wishes to "emphasize" plurality.
Yanesha' yes The suffix orthographically is -esha´ but there is not a phonological key to go from orthography to phonology. There is another plural suffix -are´. Duff-Tripp 1997:26 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes suffix -nev for any countable non human noun after CVCV; human plural -anev Danielsen 2007: p127 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 297 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:51 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Wise 1986:102 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Thiesen notes that plurality can also be achieved by manipulating the noun classifiers that are chosen. There are also unique plural markers that correspond to specific noun classes. Seifart - 2005: 56; Thiesen - 1996:26-30 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 306 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Carson 1982:73-77 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes collective (only humans); the others are clitics that may appear on PNs, Ns, Dems and Vs Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 50 to 52 Shannon Dardis
Guna yes -mar is short form Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:29 Daniel Valle
Kogi yes The plural saffix is represented as -cuai but I am not sure if that is its phonological form Stendal 1976:18 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bourland 1976:54 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Alphonse 1956:2 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Occur with all types of nouns. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:126; Queixalós - 2000:167-171 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info strangely, author never shows example of a plural noun. Pa- marks plural subject on verb Buenaventura 1993:44 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124, 195-7 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes It seems that the plural is a clitic rather than a nominal suffix since it attaches to the end of the NP. Aguirre 1999:74, Mortensen 1999:15 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes add suffix "-cuna" to the noun root Levinson 1978:6 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:272-3 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:131-3 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes However, this plural suffix is not obligatory for plural nouns Parker 1965:26, 39 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes based on the examples Faco Soares 1993:103 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:157 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:78-79 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes -at, -it, -ut' irregular markers used to achieve vowel harmony with vowel in root, however the stem may undergo an addition to the syllable in order to avoid double Vs Giron 2008: p191 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 77, 78 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes taken from examples… author does not discuss this topic Silva 2011:62 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.33 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes The majority of inanimate nouns are pluralized by the addition of the suffix -ri. The majority of animate, nonhuman nouns use the plural suffix -a. Miller 1999, p. 52 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes The plural suffix used on human nouns is -wA. The plurals of classifiers are formed in the same way as the plurals of class 2 nouns: the plural suffix -A may be added to any classifier (non-human.) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 74-77 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack Coalesence causes plural nouns or classifiers that end in 'a' to be the same as their singular counterpart.
Kotiria yes marked by suffixes Stenzel 2004, p. 128 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes -a (anim.), -ri (inanimate) Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.34 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes added after the classifier on the noun (inan.) Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15, 18 Chris Clack There is "implicit pluralism" in the forms without classifier
Barasano yes Nouns may be pluralized in various ways: the prototypical marker for animate nouns is -a (plural, animate) and the pluralizer for nearly all inanimate nouns is -ri (plural, inan.) Jones & Jones 1991, p.20 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.46-47 Chris Clack
Siona yes Wheeler - 1970:95; Wheeler - 1987:110 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 78; Ramirez 1997: 93, 204 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 195 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.79-80 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Surui yes bontkes and Dooley 1984:14 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:65 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:42 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes 25 done 1
Garrwa yes done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes n24 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 59-60 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 52 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 14 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 113 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 33 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung maybe 67, 72-73 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 42-3 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 27 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 27 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 353 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 82-84 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 201 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 58 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 99-101, 103, 104 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 6 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 49 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 39 done 0
Martuthunira yes 95 done 1
Marrgany yes 312 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 55-6 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 421 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna yes 5 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 80 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no 234 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 277 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Yes 43 1
Dyirbal No 241 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu yes 40-42 done 1
Djinang Yes 86 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 41 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal yes 47 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 17 done 1
Bularnu yes 21 Done-Austin 1
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no 139 done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 4 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana yes 63 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 85 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 19 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 71 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 74 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 64 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 18-19 done 1
Katthang yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 149-150 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 11 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 51 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 11 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya Maybe 312 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres yes FO 136 done 1
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji yes 507 done 1
Bandjalang yes 39 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 29 done 0
Arrernte No 89 0
Kokatha No 54 0
Karajarri Yes 144 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 93 1
Ritharrngu Yes 29 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 881 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 25 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no 47 0
Bilinarra yes done 1
Wiradjuri yes m286 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 Y2 0
Narungga Yes 66 done 1
Tharrkari Yes 23 1
Wajarri Yes 68 1
Warungu yes 230 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes -nai (animate), -pe (group, usu animate) Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps