Polar questions: verb morphology

Simple Clauses - Interrogatives
Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 121 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Polar ("corroborative") questions use the same stucture as a basic clause, plus a preposed interrogative particle. Allin, 1976: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 46 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 271 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer and Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Although the polar questions in Mansen & Mansen (1979) have the same word order as declaratives, the morphoogical breakdown is not shown. However, there are morphological templates for verbs, none of which show a slot for a “question” morpheme. Mansen & Mansen (1979), Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800-801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Interrogative mood, fused with tense-evidentiality. Aikhenvald, 2003: 311, 502 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 536 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1982:20 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:52 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:183-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:130 Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p370 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 389-390 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Green and Green 1972:19 Daniel Valle
Yine no only by particle Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:69 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 344 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Polar questions do not have any overt marking other than the intonation. The word order remains the same for declarative clauses. Abbott 1991: 46 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012:371-388 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:143/49 145 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:6 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana yes These are verbal suffixes.It is not clear what are the conditions in which either of them is used. Williams 1993:118-9 Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:476 Daniel Valle However, the polar interrogative particle can also be attached to verbs
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:13 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle This verbal morphology is optional; most of these sentences are only distinguished by raising intonation. The verbal morphology consists of reduplication of the final vowel of the verb
Ingá no This morpheme is attached to Levinson 1972:260-1 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Only if the subject is 1 or 2 person and only in certain tense/mood Fleck:983-4 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 253-61 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:183-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:92-94 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:154 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:831 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:39 Daniel Valle
Andoke no uncertain; yes if pn discussed above is actually verbal morph? Landaburu 1979: 149 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes This construction is usually for asking about the verb Giron 2008: p392 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis These are bound morphemes that appear in questions where there is a doubt as to what has happened or will happen.
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.69 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes suffix replaces person, gender, and number suffixes Miller 1999, p. 8 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 20 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 381 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.61 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.56 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.115 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:160 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 143 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 219 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.62 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Only difference is the lack of the sentence-final glottal stop found in declaratives Borgman 1990: 72-73 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:322:3 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:37-8 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:537 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no 78-80 done 0
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no LG52 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 78, 106 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 163 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 67 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info 57 Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 150 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 54 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 56 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no 46 done 0
Uradhi No info 381-3 Y x
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No info Done-Amalia x
Pintupi no 196 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 135 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 259 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no 209 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 70 done 0
Martuthunira no 236 done 0
Marrgany No 339 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 482 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 195 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 436 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no 105 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 111, 143 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 332 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 152 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 59 0
Dyirbal No 122 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 108 done 0
Djinang No 159 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 151 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no 58-59 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no 95 Done-Austin 0
Biri no 56 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no 46 done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr no 127 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 84 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no info done-Amalia x
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 99 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 71-3 done 0
Katthang no 100 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 203 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 51 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 215-217 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 329 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 58 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 128 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no 504 done 0
Bandjalang No 133 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 22 done 1
Arrernte No 301 0
Kokatha No 67 0
Karajarri No 278 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 10 0
Ritharrngu No 56 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 83 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 871 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 54 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 140-1 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 168 Y2 0
Narungga No 92 done 0
Tharrkari No 5 0
Wajarri No 137 0
Warungu no 2 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps