Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification
Animate/inanimate, human/non-human


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson, Peter J. (Stephen Levinsohn, translator) (1992). Una descripcion preliminar de la gramática del Achagua (Arawak). Bogotá: ILV: p. 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes One classifier marks non-human animates (as well as human males). Allin 1976: 155 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 19 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Only animates are marked for gender, constituting a break between animates and inanimates. Galindo, 2002: 99-101 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Gender only seems to be marked on animates, inanimates are neutral-marked. ?? Shauer & Shauer 2000: 519, 520 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes The masculine gender is default, while feminine gender is assigned only to feminine animates. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Animates are marked for gender, inanimates are all singular non-masculine. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes There is a general animate classifier, -ita (numerals) and -ite (other words) is used with all animate nouns. Aikhenvald, 2003: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no info All nouns are assigned to a noun class regardless of animacy. No indication of relative rates of agreement marking. Facundes, 2000: 218 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:13, 2234 Daniel Smith
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:25-26 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes There is a classifier which means "person" Duff-Tripp 1997:263 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:79 Daniel Valle
Baure no "There is no clear distinction of human versus non-human or animate versus inanimate nouns in Baure, even though there remains the subgroup of human nouns with slightly different plural marking." Danielsen 2007: p116-117 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Animacy agreement is marked on numerals, some adjectives, some indefinite quantifiers, and existential verb. On verbal person markers and nominal possessive markers, all inanimates belong to the “feminine” class. Michael, 2008. p. 294-295 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:77-83 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no "Demonstrative pns occur in both animate and inanimate forms"; not in noun classification Hall 1988: 281 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Class A, B and C. Class A is 'animate related'. Class B refers to all domestic animals. Class C includes kinship and body part nouns. Carson 1982: 56-57 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes But this is only restricted to one classifer for "animates" Aikhenvald 2000:128 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1989:22 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bertoglia 1983:3-13 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes masc./fem. for animate; rest are inanimate Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:50 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-37 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes /-dero/ is used to desiganted generic inanimate nouns while /-g/ is used to designate generic animate nonus Levinson 1976b:2 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no However, there is special marking of animate nouns whereas innanimate nouns do not have this distinction Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2005:137 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: p.130-131 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p186 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 78 Shannon Dardis See note about noun classes
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no human vs. other Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p.21 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes The inanimate noun class may be further classified as primitive (underived), deverbal concrete, or deverbal abstract. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 73 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 127 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33 Chris Clack animate/inanimate
Koreguaje yes animados e inanimados. Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.19 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.45-47 Chris Clack 1. Neuter (nonhuman or inanimate) 2. Human masculine singular 3. Human feminine singular 4. Human plural
Siona yes In both class and classification. Wheeler - 1970:95-96 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no there are many noun classes with both animates and inanimates Ramirez 1994: p.124 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47, 49 Kelsey Neely 3rd person pronouns distinguish animacy, but there aren't noun classes
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:121-41 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes 23 done 1
Garrwa no 4-5 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri n/a done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta n/a done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 46-47 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung n/a done-Amalia 0
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a done-Amalia 0
Warumungu N/A done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no 1 done 0
Uradhi N/A 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa n/a Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari n/a Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira no info done x
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 83 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 446-7 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna N/A done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 29 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 254 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay N/A 30 0
Dyirbal yes 307 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 25 done 1
Djinang Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 38 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung n/a done 0
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 60-61 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija N/A Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung n/a done 0
Mathi-Mathi n/a done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 136 done 0
Ngarinyeri N/A 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 8 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 78 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes K85b 63 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 35 done 0
Arrernte Yes 87 1
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 11 0
Ritharrngu Yes 34 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay N/A 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 881 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman N/A 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu yes 32-3 1
Bilinarra n/a 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga N/A 54 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu yes? 165 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes works together with but not identically to gender distinctions Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps