"Repeater" classifiers

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification
Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot"


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 62 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no A classifier is not required. However, classifiers may be used to "singularize" nouns that are inherently plural, which is on rare occasions the same as the noun itself. Allin, 1976: Aimee Lawrence
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995: 21 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco n/a Galindo, 2002: 99, 101 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Only possessive and numeral classifiers, no mention of repeaters. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no There do not seem to be any classifiers. Mosonyi, 1987 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no info Santos, 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu n/a Mansen & Captain, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes To classify nouns that do not have a classifier (about 40% of nouns), the head noun is repeated on the modifier. Aikhenvald, 2003: 117 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Nouns do not require classifiers, so no classifier slot to be filled Facundes, 2000: 162-179 Aimee lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:253-66 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p447 Mitz Perez
Nanti no No mention in discussion of classifier system. Michael, 2008. p. 332-340 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:94 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Makushi no Carson 1992: 55-86 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes There are four repeater classifiers Aikhenvald 2000:128 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1989:39-59 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana yes man/woman/boy/girl Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-37 Daniel Valle However, the words for "male" and "female" can be used to convey gender
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 74 to 80 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 43 Amanda Novak there ae three general classifers that are often used for new objects
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.73-122 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.40 Chris Clack possibly partial (check)
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.18-25 Chris Clack no info/ not expected
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.49-58 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes In some cases, the head of the noun phrase appears to be copied onto the modifier to create the classifier (but drops the nominalizer.) Strom 1992, p.55 Chris Clack
Siona no The classification system is so intricate and thorough that this is not necessary. Wheeler - 1987:106-110 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes all inanimate count nouns can be used as "dependent noun" type classifiers Ramirez 1997:237 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely From my observations, there are hardly any words that don't have a classifier associated with them.
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez p.119-121 Kelsey Neely classifiers limited and synchronically frozen, no mention of numeral classifiers
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:121-41 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri n/a done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta n/a done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung n/a done-Amalia 0
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a done-Amalia 0
Warumungu N/A done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa n/a Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira no info 190-191 done x
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 83 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 448 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna N/A done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru n/a Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr n/a done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay N/A 30 0
Dyirbal No 44 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu n/a 25 done 0
Djinang N/A 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung n/a done 0
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija N/A Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung n/a done 0
Mathi-Mathi n/a done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima n/a done 0
Ngarinyeri N/A 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul N/A 8 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 78 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang N/A Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara N/A 35 done 0
Arrernte No 90 0
Kokatha N/A 52 0
Karajarri N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara N/A 0
Ritharrngu N/A 34 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman N/A 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra n/a 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga N/A 54 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha no Y2 0
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps