Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed

Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability
An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes suffix marking not possessed form of inalienably possessed nouns Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 20 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no Inalienable nouns have a deictic element if they are unpossessed. Allin, 1976: 225 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 13 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Prefixed with third-person possessor and an extra suffix is added. Galindo, 2002: 92 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520, Shauer, 1978: 47 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Uncommon in everyday speech. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006:99 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes “Possessed” suffixes are used to make a possessive stem, but only on nouns that aren't considered inherently possessed. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no The Arawak -tsi is retained in a few nouns. These are treated as optionally possessed. Inalienable nouns are classified as such because they cannot occur without a cross-referencing prefix. Aikhenvald, 2003: 127-129 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã yes Unpossessed inalienable nouns require the "unposession" marker -txi, but no pmarking necessary to occur in possessed form. Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:4953 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:24 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:30-1 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Inalienable nouns are always possessed. So, it is not possible to have an unpossessed inalienable noun which may or may not show a default marker. Danielsen 2007:119 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Nanti no The -tsi marker in other Arawak languages has been lost. The first-person plural inclusive marker /a-/ is now used to function as an impersonal possessor. Michael, 2008. p. 300-301 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes a radical suffix Launey 2003:78 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Marked with accusative case. Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 85 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012:74-80 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:55-7 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:261-2 Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no Aguirre 1999:79-80 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely not Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-102 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes They need a possessive prefix to be mentioned Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes consider proclitic as the indefined? Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982 Daniel Smith
Hup yes 3rd person singular pronoun Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info inalienables said to be oblig possessed Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p.49 Chris Clack
Cubeo no info Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77-92 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.40-41 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.45 Chris Clack no info/not expected
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.61 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Siona no If referring to an unpossessed object/noun, it simply has no marking. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no info Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 118 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.55-56 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296, 303-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes inalienable possession must have possessive prefix Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:85-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no info done x
Wambaya no info done x
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri N/A Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 57 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 51 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 34 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 55 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 378 Y 0
Paakantyi no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 65, 77 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no info Done-Emily x
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 45 done 0
Martuthunira no 91 done 0
Marrgany No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 325 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no info Done-Jessica x
Kugu-Nganhcara No 428 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 196-200 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 57 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 170 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 49 0
Dyirbal No 61 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 98-99 done 0
Djinang No 199 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no done 0
Bularnu no 38 Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 95-6 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina n/a done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 82 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a 33 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 20-21 done 0
Katthang no 66 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 77 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 41 done 0
Arrernte No 150 0
Kokatha No 55 0
Karajarri No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 102 0
Ritharrngu No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 59 Y2 0
Narungga No info 65 done x
Tharrkari No 26 0
Wajarri No 48 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes suffix Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps