3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects

Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking
3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 28 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No person marking, only pronominal clitics. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 27 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 158-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer 2000: 297, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence, Ana Paula Brandao
Yavitero yes There can be a marker, but ø for third-person objects is also common. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 62 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Third-person objects are marked in a number of different ways, depending on the tense/aspect of the verb. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana n/a No object person marking. Aikhenvald, 2003: 122, 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Third person masculine, feminine, and plural are all overtly marked Facundes, 2000: 141-145 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1983:2025 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:21-23 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:77 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:92-3 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 267 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:24 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003:68 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes object is not marked on verb Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes 3rd person patient is 0 marker Hall 1988:287 Daniel Smith
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 101 Melody Ann Ross See chart
Eñepa no Payne 2012 :234-239 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1989:20 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes Margery 1985:103 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes But this is because there are no person markers on the verb whatsoever Quesada 2008:99 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 2000: 575-576 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Must be marked in subject is ø. Buenaventura - 1993:43-46 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:315 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes But notice that any person in subject or object position is marked on the verb Mortensen 1999:16, 59 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Objects are not coreferenced on the verb Levinson 1974:9 Daniel Valle
Matses yes But objects (of any person and number) are not marked on the verb Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Core participant verbal suffixes are fusional. So, they may convey other maenings as well. Zúñiga 2006, p. 104-7 Daniel Valle
Páez yes just like all objects Jung:74-91 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes The most frequent strategy is to not cross-reference the object in the verb. But this is possible when the constituent order is SVO. Montes 2004b:122-123 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes objects are not marked on the verb except for human 3 person ones Olawsky:468 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 212-215 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 127 Shannon Dardis The source specifically states: "it's mark in this case would be Ø for the third person object"
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes objects are not marked on verb Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Daniel Smith
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 125 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no objects not marked on the verb Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.45-47 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.91 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.108 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.116 Chris Clack
Siona no There is a systematic, grammatical way of marking 3rd person objects. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes objects not marked West and Welch 2004: 10-11; Ramirez 1997: 108, 120 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes absolutive 3rd person arguments will be marked, unless there is a 1st or 2nd person ergative. Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes can be included or omitted, but are often omitted Borgman 1990: 39 Kelsey Neely
Surui no But there is an option to have 3s unmarked in the verb Van der Meer (?):9 Daniel Smith
Karitiana yes But all persons are zero Everett 2006:343-57 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:46-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 84-6 done 0
Garrwa n/a done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta n/a 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a done-Dan 0
Yidiny N/A done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 106 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha n/a Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a 36-50 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 76 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 41 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 28 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 352 Y 0
Paakantyi no 128 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 15; 114-115 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 79 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang N/A done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi N/A 55-60 done 0
Martuthunira yes 136-152 done 1
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 215 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 399 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna N/A 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 32 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr n/a done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 51 0
Dyirbal N/A done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu n/a done 0
Djinang Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 52 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 37 done 0
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr yes done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 30 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 82 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 45 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima n/a 169 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 23 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul N/A 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen N/A 92 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes K85a 110 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang N/A Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 55 done 0
Arrernte N/A 186 0
Kokatha N/A 3 0
Karajarri Yes 228 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 123 1
Ritharrngu No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra n/a done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 16 0
Wajarri Yes 79 1
Warungu yes 253-61 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps