Reduplication: partial

Morphology - General
Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua yes not productive, verbs with iterative semantics Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 56 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no Allin notes that there may be some frozen reduplication, but this is not productive and the unreduplicated forms are no longer available. However, the verb phrase can be repeated in total (for simple VPs) or in part (complex VPs) to give a repetitive read Allin 1976: 113, 210 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes marks repetitive aspect, reduplication of the final syllable of a verbal stem. Some verbs use full reduplication, some use partial. Aikhenvald, 1995: 31 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no info Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Examples of partial and total reduplication. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 517 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no info Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no info Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no No other discussion of reduplication. Aikhenvald, 2003 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no only for onomotopaeic forms Facundes, 2000: 250 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1983:50, 55, 149 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:21-36 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:164 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p96 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Syllables can be reduplicated in order to meet metrical restraints in kariNtaa poetry, but no indication that reduplication serves any “grammatical” purpose. Michael, 2008 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Rowan and Burgess 1979:82 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:96-100 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Occurs most often with adjectives and demonstratives. Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:11-14 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Makushi yes Seen when indicating second person singular. Carson 1982:97 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no info only one mention of reduplication Payne 2012:339 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 271 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes The final vowel of a noun is reduplicated to derive nouns apparently from adjectives Quevedo 2008:50-1 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:109-11 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:32 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info more likely not Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Based on the examples on the grammar, it seems that the verbal root is fully reduplicated Fleck:452-7 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.188 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes It usually consists of the reduplication of the last syllable of the root Parker 1965:84-6 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info More likely not Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:418 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:47 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños don't know this yet
Kaingang yes reduplicated verbs for plurality Cavalcante 1987:58-65 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no info Minor and Minor 1982. p.33 Daniel Smith
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no not indicated/expected Miller 1999 Chris Clack
Cubeo yes disyllabic stems tend to reduplicate final syllable only Chacón 2012:207-208 Daniel Smith
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993 Chris Clack not indicated/expected
Koreguaje no info Cook & Criswell 1993 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.41-47 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.55 Chris Clack
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no info West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: p.364-366 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez : p.35 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes However, reduplication is not a productive phenomenon. It only happen in less than 20 words and some not all of them partially reduplicate. Everett 2006:210 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:308 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:153-154 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 25 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes s108 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 99 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 108 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 52 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu no 44 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 27-28, 49 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 16 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi Yes 364 Y 1
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar yes d43 done 1
Nhanta yes 115 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 37-38 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 50 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 60 done 1
Martuthunira no 34-35 done 0
Marrgany No 312 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 61 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 87 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 382 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 20 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 25b Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 87 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 316 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay Yes 21 1
Dyirbal yes 251 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 49 done 0
Djinang Yes 125 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 30 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu yes 19 Done-Austin 1
Biri no 32 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala Yes 4 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes 97 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 51 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 84 done 1
Mathi-Mathi no 74, 93, 100 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 67, 91 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 17, 54 done 0
Katthang no 48 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no? Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 6 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 312 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 68 Done- 1
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya yes 10.1.1 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 513 done 1
Bandjalang yes 83 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 78 done 1
Arrernte Yes 195 1
Kokatha Yes 27 1
Karajarri Yes 64 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 145, G 241 0
Ritharrngu Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 59 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 952 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu yes 47 1
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri yes 27 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 44 Y2 1
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 24 0
Wajarri Yes 63 1
Warungu no 238 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001:336 Patience Epps