cloud

Semantic Field
environment
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
nube
Meaning Portuguese
nuvem

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim ke-lā' “cloudy” 209 loan Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone pakyna-ppyh “cloud, fog” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla wewni-sh (clouds) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok 7o:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi pagy/nav(y) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno ikc'i7 “be cloudy”, sikch'i7 “cloud” Ono 96:124 inheritance Mithun 1997:224 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno 7Iq'ts'i inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno kustiq7emena7na “the sky is overcast” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno ts'ymy unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa kwi: inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche tomo-, tomoba7atY, tomoobI semantic shift Jane Hill
Cupeño tempe-yax [təmpə-yax] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen mech loan Pinart (Heizer) Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7akwa:kin “nube, said when is to rain” unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'ekwiiy [Ɂəˈkʷiˑi] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu kyna-vi inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7-kWiy, 7-kWiy-u inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk wongat inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok mo/lpa inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño tuvi/icha inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
Maidu ja/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave 7iikwe inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun mechke “it's clouding up” unknown O77:56 Jane Hill
Nisenan ja: inheritance (Ultan 1964) Jane Hill
Northern Paiute kumiba inheritance Thornes 03:106 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7o:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok mo:li- (under mal:i- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A pa:/i:7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M pa:/y' unknown Mason 1918:132 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hoocax “large thunder clouds” unknown Jane Hill
Serrano taY:7-T (also “thunder”) inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute pagin:a-S inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok 7o:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute uwatipY inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal paashuumisht unique Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone pakyynappyh inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo c'u/m unknown Jane Hill
Washo dawma/hym unknown J111 Jane Hill
Western Mono too/pE unknown Jane Hill
Wintu q'ah, q'a:h inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai (?)kWi/ inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami k'eli inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi k'Udai inheritance K07:243 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne k'ile/\; inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
Yuki 7ip inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7akwe/ H1:30 inheritance Jane Hill
Carijona kahu weti {sky excrement) (M2000) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo o'kó-pedĩ-bo-a (H&R) oʔkó-pedĩ-bo-a (H&R) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw bug uù bug ʔû unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano ĩbĩkã ku'rúri (H&R) ĩbĩkã kuʔrúri (H&R) unknown See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Hodï bĩʰtu ('fog, cloud, smoke') doubtful loan, direction unknown Macaguan mɨ̃tẽ́ See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani bogĩbã (cloud, fog) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup j'ɨk kudú ɟ’ɨk kudú loan loanblend in subgroup; kudu from Tukanoan See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua bab-at toliʔ-dãʔ [H&R] unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Ninam thəm wãri tʰəm wãri unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak hei2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki bico ja biko xa unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Sanumá ilaši tǝ ilaʃi tə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani ɨta-rɨ́-rɨ-bo unique See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tukano õʔbẽ-kurá-ri õʔbẽ-kurá-ri unknown See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria bu'i-ri buʔi-ri inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam kroke kroke unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami ɨhrashi ɨhraʃi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna [juni] juwáka'ala [huni] huwákaʔala inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup c'ɨ́k kudú c'ɨ́k kudú loan Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana kurarapalku unique Claire Bowern
Bardi ardan ardan inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba ngumurru inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra nguparr unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu maŋan unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal maŋan Claire Bowern
Dhuwala wutjun unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari parlku unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU kurauarapalku loan Arabana Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu 1798 unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu maŋan unknown Claire Bowern
Djinang ngawaḻngawaḻ unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng ngoomelng inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi ngoomoorroo doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu wutjun unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji maarn loan Jaminjung Claire Bowern
Jaru maarn loan Claire Bowern
Jawi arol arol unique Claire Bowern
Karajarri ringu doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Kija ngumul inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: thalaRa loan Claire Bowern
Mangala pukarr unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung ngoomelng inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka turnrditirri inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra mardayi Claire Bowern
Mudburra mardayi loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini kurrara doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Ngandi gurnung inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngarluma garndara Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl ngoombal <ngoombal> unknown Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi ngandyarri unique Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla mujungku Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta mujungu inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta 5200 inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyikina jirrbal jirrbal inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul waden waden inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi ḏūru Claire Bowern
Pirriya joŋala unique Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta parnrtara unique Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu maŋan Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu gurnung loan Claire Bowern
Walmajarri ngumurru loan Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru parntara unique Claire Bowern
Wubuy nguburnung inheritance Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu 2969 unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha kudawarrala, ngandjarri nganya, pariwilpa unique Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi pundithirri inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka ngamiarapannja unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru jirrbal jirrbal inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua sáanai sáanai unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco acalèe akalèe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari t̪aamana, aakhe t̪aamana, aakhe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ľ̥i'aľi-ľi enu 'smoke of sky' ľ̥i'aľi-ľi enu 'smoke of sky' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana [-]waranɨ ii [-]waranɨ ii unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu sir̃uma See Language page PLE
Yine kyačhapererɨmko See Language page PLE
Paresi hoka hoka unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano 'ukahi See Language page PLE
Trinitario 'ukohi See Language page PLE 'Cloudy' is 'ukohimo; -mopkumo; -mopkurumo; -mopkuurumo.
Baure roeamokonoe' roeamokonoe' unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá iye-pe ije-pe unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
Arutani karapaso See Language page John Blaha
Sape usǝyna See Language page John Blaha
Cha'palaa 'ɲi-'wihča See Language page PLE Also means 'smoke' 01.830.
Bora ojtso (T98) oxtso unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane áimúufai (W97) (=smoke) áimúuɸai (W97) (=smoke) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio kabuuruuk kaburuk inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai akuru akuru inheritance but compare Arawak, e.g. Piapoco akalèe See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana eklotï eklotɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó ikapurutu ikapurutu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare kāʔdutu (IDS) kāʔdutu (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Kalapalo kamundu kamundu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca faoa βaoa See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí nindihkɨ See Language page PLE Colombia: ba'dunə, refers to 'clouds at rest'. *Chibchan form is *'bõ; *bo-.
Northern Emberá hɨ̃rã'rã (IDS) hɨ̃rã'rã (IDS) See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena hɨ̃a'rara See Language page PLE Plural form. All segments are realized as their nasalized counterparts.
Guayabero ötlehe-nu unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan mɨ̃tẽ́ doubtful loan, direction unknown Hodɨ bĩʰtu See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán unji´mba ɯnhimba See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra msaasi msaasi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez tãapj tãapx See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna cai3-5xa5ne5xü8 (A58) kaiʔaneʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina dedesekaḍzi dedesekatʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa xantɕetí-ʃe ('clouds at rest') xantɕetí-ʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke boatsiakǝ(ũw) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé gõãrã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave yõpawan yõpawan unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku sapǝnawi See Language page PLE
Ashuar mukúnit mukunit See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa yuragkim juraŋgkim See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna yujagkím juxangkim inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect wǝ puh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses abu abu doubtful loan Tacanan *bo See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo nɨtɨ 'kʷĩ See Language page PLE ṣ̌u'pi-ti 'to cloud up, to dim, darken, to draw toward evening'. βɨna-ti, βɨpa-ti (dial.) 'to become cloudy'.
Katukina nai koʔĩ See Language page PLE Lit. 'sky smoke' 01.510; 01.830.
Pacahuara 'c̷ɨmo See Language page PLE
Shipibo-Konibo koĩ; čoma See Language page PLE Also means 'smoke'. Latter form is plural.
Yaminahua kõi See Language page PLE Also means 'smoke' 01.830.
Chácobo c̷ɨmo c̷ɨmo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua nuvachiy (Spanish loan?), rapuryeje nuwatʃij, rapurjexe loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua puyu puju See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá puiu puiu See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua puyu puju See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano puyu puju See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa ahiya i'co'phah (K76) ahija iʔtsoʔphah unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva tetahe tetaʔe unique See Language page Becky Walker
Barasano búé-rí, okó gaseri ('clouds, smoke') búé-rí, okó gaseri ('clouds, smoke') See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana óko buserí óko buserí See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna ide bue-ri ide bue-ri inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti ɨ'bẽbɨrɨa-ri ɨ'bẽbɨrɨa-ri See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana bu'e-ri bu'e-ri See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano bĩʔkã jeʔbo-ri bĩʔkã jeʔbo-ri See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca oko u'bãkaka oko u'bãkaka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo oko bu'hé-ri oko bu'hé-ri See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka õ'bẽ́ õʔbẽ́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja bu'eri, ó'kó bɨ'rɨri níi buʔeri, óʔkó bɨʔrɨri níi See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje okomala, pikho okomala, pikho unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Secoya si'di si'di See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana esyra, pãmpipok esɨɾa, pãmpipok unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama uni-ta-watsu uni-ta-watsu unique See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi ɨwakũ ɨwakũ inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché bakɨ rei unique See Language page PLE
Chiriguano ãma; ãma pɨ̃tu unique See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní arai See Language page PLE
Sirionó ibeišĩ (ibei means sky, ešĩ means white)) ibeišĩ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ɨwɨtsiɑ ɨwɨtsiɑ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina jahfíího haʔɸííʔo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Murui Witoto naɨ̀rie naɯ̀riɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Wari tayain nanawin tajain nanawin See Language page PLE Lit. 'smoke (01.830) of the sky' 01.510.
Araona boso; mozizi-bade See Language page PLE *Tacn form is *bo.
Ese Ejja ɓo; -haʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo bo bo See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana hodo; boðo See Language page PLE The former also means 'smoke' 01.830. 'To be cloudy' is soro-a-.
Cavineña wani (Also means "smoke") wani unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara urpu ḳinaya See Language page PLE
Cayuvava bɔkɔ See Language page PLE 'Clouds in tumult, whirling, twisting' is kɨrɨmɨ. 'Storm cloud' is račo'čoboe. 'To become cloudy' ritidaɨ.
Itonama o-nela See Language page PLE 'To be cloudy' is kamaniʔtʸa uwayo.
Kwazá awenũ, hanãwã, hanãwãnũ awenũ, hanãwã, hanãwãnũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané erubu'ye See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima ɓe-yas ɓe-jas See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai naneʔde naneʔde unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kanhkã gòg ŋɔŋ; kaɲkã ŋɔŋ; ŋɔŋŋɔŋ; ŋuŋŋɔŋ See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi benõhi benõhi See Language page PLE
Chipaya c̷xiri See Language page PLE A large cloud is aḳʰikila. 'Cloudy' is kopxa; koxpkiš.
Mocoví n-awege-lek See Language page PLE Lit. 'prefix-drag-upon'.
Pilagá 'l-oʔok See Language page PLE Cf. 'skin' 04.120, with meaning of 'covering'.
Toba l-ʔok See Language page PLE
Lengua yiphopaiya See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité yiphopaia nitiŋ See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet yephopayˀ See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay pe'leʔ See Language page PLE Same as 'sky' 01.510.
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja poleʔ (m.) See Language page PLE Also means 'sky' 01.510.
Maca wasiʔ (f.) See Language page PLE Cf. 'sky' 01.510.
Nivaclé wɔseʔ; wɔsei cloud https://ids.clld.org/ PLE Respectively: sing.; plural. Arribeños dialect has wase. Cf. 'sky' 01.510.
Ayoreo geei See Language page PLE Also means 'rain' 01.750.
Mapudungun ṭ͡ʀomɨ See Language page PLE Ranquel forms are ṭ͡ʀomɨ; ṭ͡ʀav-ṭ͡ʀomɨ.
Qawasqar arḳa-yeta See Language page PLE Cf. 'up' 12.080 and 'weave' 06.330. Bo, Li record the same for Central QWS. Gui records ayel, (cf. 'fog' 01.740). Hy records yel for South QWS.
Selknam šoʔn ša See Language page PLE Up in the sky; cf. 01.510.
Tehuelche 'paʔwn See Language page PLE
Lokono olhalho oɽaɽo cloud Pet 1987:354 Camille Unger
Kariña kapùrutu kapuhrutu cloud Courtz 2007:291 Camille Unger