Yokuts Yowlumne

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
yok
Location
35.56°, -119.07°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location Tipin inheritance K 1963(p. 213) Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar yow N 238 unknown K 1963 Jane Hill
all todo todos other yeeT'aw unknown K 1963 (N1, N1944 Jane Hill
and y e grammar 7ama7 inheritance Blevins 2004:42 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body kuyu7 inheritance N1944 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body giT'e:n-ne:l/ ? *giT'e:n “hold under the arm” inheritance N1944 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment hiT'el (N1) and N 154 hit'el- inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body wat'im inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality toT'i7 inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body palik' inheritance Golla 64 p 60 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 7atil inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality may'e:k/ “big, big one” inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body 7asas inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour *moDok'wiyi turn black inheritance N 1944 59 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body pa:ya:x loan into protolanguage N1944:215 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body *pHo:Su inheritance N1944:165, G1964 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body c'iy inheritance Golla 1964:60 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body me:niT' inheritance Newman 1964 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body hohSe: inheritance Golla 1964:60 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment *sa:pa inheritance N1944:39 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human witep, wiCHep inheritance N 1944 38, G1964 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion *hala:- unknown N1944:78 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment k'ile/\; inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality hosow inheritance Golla 1964 61; Jane Hill
come venir vir motion taxin N 137 inheritance N1944:137 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact hiSi “cooked” inheritance Golla 1964 p 61 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mizhna' “indeed, surely” unknown K 1963, N 1944 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental *pic'i inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental *wa:xal N 136; inheritance N1944:136 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact k'iT'i “to cut” unknown N44W, N 1964 Jane Hill
day día dia time hay'al inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state tHa:waTh inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact T'olow “to dig, peel(?)” inheritance N1944 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna yaw'lich' unknown N1944:214 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality T'ay'ak' “to be dirty” unknown N1944 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental anaTH-wal loan into protolanguage Golla 1964:61 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7ugu:n, 7ugu'n ; Golla 7ukun inheritance N 1944; Blevins 2004:39 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality missing Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment missing Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tHuk' inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment xoT'oy (n1) inheritance K 1963, G1964 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body xatHa inheritance N1944:24, 1964, G 1964 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna hon inheritance Golla 1964 p 61 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body sasa' inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body bidik' “act of excreting,“excrement”; pe:tik' cited C1997:37 inheritance N1944:218 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion *baT'an “fall down” N 75; unknown N1944:75 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality wa' inheritance Golla 1964 62 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body he:xa7, hix-a:c'/ inheritance N1944:75, 165 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship nopHopH inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental Thana:yitH inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna xa:pal (n1 flight), inheritance N1944 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment 7oSitH inheritance N 1944 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna lopHiT inheritance W&G 1986 Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment 7e:law inheritance Golla 1964 62; Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion hoyon inheritance Golla 1964:62 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment gumun unknown N1944;p. 219 Jane Hill
foot pie body taT'at' inheritance Golla 1964:62 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 7insis inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state *bo:huT' “mature”; buh'aT' Blevins 2004:39 inheritance N 1944 51 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 'oT'ow head hair (n1) inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body p'unT'uk' inheritance N1944 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ama:/ “third person” inheritance N1944:229 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body 7oT'ow inheritance Golla 1964:62 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental *la:na N 118; inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality may'a- (?) inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion hiSin inheritance Golla 1964:63; Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact *woTHo “hit w/ club” inheritance N1944:138, G1964 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other c'owo “grasp” unknown N 1944:61 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hawy- inheritance 306 K 1907 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar na: N 229 inheritance N1944:229 Jane Hill
if si se grammar Taw unknown N1944:238 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -w inheritance N44:203,4 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body ban'iT' unknown N1944 Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact Soxo inheritance Golla 1964:63; Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hutu inheritance N1944:29, G1964 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment p'a'a:Si' (n1) loan into protolanguage K 1963 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental ha:y'a: inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment da/\pdap, t'ap'p'aS (N1) inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body t'a:cha7 inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body k'alassa' (n1), inheritance Golla 1964:63 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion bana:na: N44W and N1964 unknown N1944,N1964 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment walam'-wiyi inheritance N1964 Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body xo: inheritance N1964 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body tiph inheritance Golla 1964:63 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality wa'aT' inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tHi'iTH “head louse” inheritance W&G 1986 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body haSbay'al doubtful loan K 1963 N1, N1964 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human no:n'o7 inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna c'ixil inheritance N1964 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment 7opH other G1964:65 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship no'om inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body sama' inheritance N 1944 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human hOy'O inheritance Blevins 2004 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body xinits, xinic' (n1) inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality missing Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body o'gun inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality hac'a:me: unknown N1964 Jane Hill
night noche noite time toy'no7 inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ohom inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body Thinik' inheritance W&G 1986 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality moxelo', mo:xol (Golla 1964) inheritance K 1963, N 1944 Jane Hill
one uno um number yet' inheritance G1964:66 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other 7aTl- inheritance N 1944 p. 30 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar lagli7 “other, a different one” unknown N1944 Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body thexth-in “to be sick” inheritance Golla 1964:64; Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human yokHoch' inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact potox “smash” loan direction unknown 293 K 1907 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment Si7e:' “to rain” , Se7el (Golla 1964) inheritance N1964 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour pac'alwiyi “turn red” inheritance N1944:59 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pay'a7 inheritance Golla 1964:64; Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pHil loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Golla 1964 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora ho:pHul inheritance Golla 1964:64 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment suxsuy inheritance Golla 1964:64 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental wiye:, wiyi inheritance N1944:31, N1964 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact xosop unknown N1944 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental e:k'a inheritance Golla 1964:64 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact t'uyu inheritance N1944 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality missing Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body k'apsay inheritance Golla 1964:64 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental 7ol7olwoo: to be bashful towards loan into protolanguage, direction unknown N1944 Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state hulo:S inheritance Golla 1964:65 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body T'o:tot “skin, bark” inheritance Golla 1964:65 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment ThipHin inheritance W&G 1986 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body *wo:'uy “fall asleep” inheritance N 1944 35 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality gudi7 unknown N 1944 38 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment mooT'ak' loan into protolanguage N1944 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body *Se:niT' inheritance N1944:39 Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tuhwiyi “to spit” loan direction unknown N1944 Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact T'idik' unknown N1964 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact T'it'iw “pinch” inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact pok'wiyi “to pierce through” unknown N1944 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wo:wul inheritance N 1944 21 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment ts'aitas (same in Golla 1964) inheritance K 1963, Golla 1964 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other *7o:T'u inheritance N1944:39 Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora hit'es loan into protolanguage, direction unknown K 1963 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment silel inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body c'abbo: “to suck at” inheritance N1964 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body To\pox unknown K 1963 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body *So:won “swell up”; So:w'on unknown N 1944 51, Blevins 2004:39 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion pe:li inheritance Golla 1964:65 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body k'ut'-us inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar Tha: inheritance Golla 1964:65 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7ama: inheritance N44:229 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality tintiniT' inheritance Golla 1964:65 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality Sin'a7 “consumptive, lean” inheritance N1944 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental *de:mide:mi “think about” inheritance N1944:153 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ke:/ unknown N1944:67 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar ma:/ inheritance N1944:229 Jane Hill
three tres tres number So:pHin inheritance W&G 1986 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body hoSil (n1 windpipe), unknown N1964 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact *k'o7o loan into protolanguage, direction unknown N1944:86 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment mimyaTH inheritance Golla 1964:65; Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact *T'ik'i “tie, imprison” inheritance N1944:166 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body tHalxaTH inheritance Golla 1964:65 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body The:yiy inheritance Golla 1964:65 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other c'atap “turn over” inheritance Golla 1964:66 Jane Hill
two dos dois number ponoy inheritance W&G 1986 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body huxus inheritance Golla 1964:66 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion *hiwe:t loan into protolanguage N 1944 52 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7ilik' inheritance K 1963, W&G Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar na'ak' (dual), na'an- (plural) inheritance N 1944:230 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality missing Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar ha'uk inheritance N1944:233 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar hiyuk (subj), hiyo'uk (loc), hiye:tuk (abl) inheritance N1944:235 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour c'olo:l- inheritance N 1944 108 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar wa:t/ inheritance N1944:232 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship mokiy' N 1964 inheritance N1964 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment SokHiw inheritance Golla 1964:66 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body xa:pHal (= fingers N1 p. 217) inheritance Golla 1964:66 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human gaa7in'a inheritance N1944 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other c'o:w'o: “work, grasp continuously” N 87 inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour wa:yu' “buckskin” N1 also denotes yellow loan Spanish K 1963:218 N1 Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. dap abalone (Haliotis) unique NOT Chumash OR Salinan; perhaps related to the “leaf” word dapdap??? same underived Kroeber 1961:220 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana coyol, şoyol antelope inheritance Nim-Yokuts Kroeber missing Pal., Buena Vista has the mu- form WW %sok same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus Taniu', Taniw T'aniw N 202 badger inheritance Yokutsan note Pal. ten-neu' same underived Kroeber 1961:201 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus owik bald eagle inheritance Yokutsan unless Pal. form is really Yowlumne, this is Yokutsan; all but two forms in Kroeber are this one same underived Kroeber 1961:202 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata sO:win O is [ɔ] wild doves (Merriam confirms 58:553) inheritance *s/howin Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:61 same underived Newman 1944:139 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp chim-chim, tsim-tsim bat inheritance *c'im'c'im' Yokutsan onlyin Homet, Pal, Yawe in Kroeber; Callaghan 1997:30, possibly Yok-Utian given PU *şim ... same reduplicated Merriam 58:549 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor tèpik, t'e:bik beaver inheritance *t'/t''ɨpɨkʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:354 WW %t'ypyk same underived Kroeber 1961:201 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp bodo:diywe:'ç' stinkbug unique same other complex lit. one who is turning the anus (-ic' agentive, -wiyi verb Newman 1944:31 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus bumuk probably has initial /p/ round tule (Merriam confirms 58:573) inheritance *pumuk' Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:65 same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tcox, cox, čo:x skunk inheritance *cʰox Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:356 same underived Kroeber 1961:201 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus yaw'lic' wolf inheritance Yokutsan Note apparent Pal. cognate from Merriam, yev'-lĕ-che same other complex from “to chase” with -ic' agentive suffix Newman 1944:14 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis lew-ā'-sip; le-wā'-sip bighorn sheep inheritance Nim-Yokuts Probably a loan from somewhere; it's in Tubatulabal WW %lewasip same underived probably complex but unanalyzable given available materials Merriam 58:549 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wèwutsoi, wew'coy Kroeber's c is [ʃ] bird loan Kitanemuk This form only in Yowlumne, Palewyami, Hometwoli,in 3 different branches of Y. , but geographically adjacent and adjacent to Kitanemuk. K. ˈwiʦitat, with a good UA etymology, seems a likely source. Unless wits “buzzard” is somehow involved. narrower (I suspect this is for the smaller birds; see Kroeber's note) underived initial syllable reduplicated from Kitanemuk witsitat Kroeber 1961:201 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger xO:layxOla:y black ant (Merriam confirms “big black ant” 58:563 inheritance *k/po:lay- Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:60 same reduplicated Newman 1944:36 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus moloi bear loan Miwok only in Choynok, Yawe Callaghan 2001:333 says “may match PM *my:de “brown bear”. I think both are from “black, dark” P-U word; calling bears “the dark one, the brown one” is a near-universal WW %mol same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus dopol, dobol jackrabbit inheritance *topol Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:325 same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus mah-me, mah'-mil blackberry (Rubus ursinus) inheritance Nim-Yokuts In Chukchansi, Yawdanchi WW %mam broader (probably for any berry) underived the final -il appears on other forms and might be an affix but I think it's just an epenthetic vowel i with a final /l/ on the root Merriam 58:567 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? lum-tin'-nin hŭm'-lŭl Blue grouse “mountaineer quail” unique Includes Yokutsan *humn-ul “Valley Quail” same phrase lomit “mountain” Merriam 58:553 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus t'unul wildcat inheritance *t'onol < **t'ol'an Yokutsan Callaghan 1997:32 (Gamble's reconstruction), note Pmi *tol:o:m:a “wildcat” WW %talom same underived Kroeber 1961:200 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera wò/gaigitc, wo:gay'gic butterfly unique Southern Valley Yokuts Kroeber has in Nutunutu, Chunut, Tachi, Wo'lasi, Choynuk, Yowlumne same other complex has -ic' agentive Kroeber 1961:206 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus wiç' condor inheritance *wi*č' (N-Y) Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 WW %wit same underived Newman 1944:176 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? T'ayT'ay T is retroflex t (with subdot in original) bluejay loan into protolanguage *T'ayT'ay General Yokuts unknown Callaghan 1997:58; missing only in Pal; compare Mis Tajič, Miw *$aji:ch; Nisenan ch'ajit “bluejay”; probably a loan into the proto-language; UA words like cha'ish are same thing WW %chaj same reduplicated Newman 1944:14 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pala:k'ak' woodpecker (Merriam confirms Melanerpes) loan *phala:tath Nim-Yokuts unknown Golla 1964:66 (but this is NOT regular in Nim-Yokuts???); Callaghan 1997:61 compares Pmi *palaT:a, noting “there are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts”; given irregular T, k' match perhaps this should be coded as a loan; Troike discusses thi WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. che-wil'-le chipmunk, Eutamias inheritance Nim-Yokuts see Yawd tciviyi, tcivili (in Kroeber and Merriam) same underived Merriam 58:549 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota dánabak'yits swallow (M form very similar for Hirundo) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Merriam has tan'-nah-pek'-kă-lis, tan-nah-pok'-hĕ'-lis for Chukchansi same other complex must be a verb danabak, with -its agentive?? Kroeber 1961:212 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana hoyòlis mudhen unique Unique in Kroeber same underived might have -is suffix? Kroeber 1961:204 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tsiuʷ, ç'i'iw çi'iw N 218 cottontail rabbit inheritance *č,hiw, *thiw Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 same underived Newman 1944:218 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. lah'-pah cottonwood inheritance Yokutsan lep-pah in Palewyami; similar form in all Merriam's list WW %pat ~ %lapat same underived might be related to/dapdap/ “leaf” with some consonantal sound symbolism byt this would be an ancient derivation Merriam 58:565 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans kay'iw coyote inheritance *kʰay'iw Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:354 WW %kaju same underived Newman 1944:125 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos alwut crow inheritance *ɂalwuT' Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:28, surely a loan into Proto-Nim-Yokuts from UA *ata-wɨ-ta “crow-aug-NPN”; hence Callaghan's resemblance to Pmi *ɂa:wy(č) is spurious WW %alwut same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii da:nay Datura inheritance Yokutsan WW %tanai same underived Kroeber 1961:211 (175) 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus xoi, xoy, xo:y xO(:)y N 176 deer inheritance *xoy Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:61 same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana tònos digger pine (Merriam confirms to:nos P. sabiniana 58:565) inheritance *tho:ŋas Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:61; Golla 1964:61; Callagan 2001:324 compares Proto-Maidu *to:n “digger pine” same underived since P. ponderosa is to:n, the -as may be a suffix historically Kroeber? Newman? 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris bu'us dog inheritance Southern Valley Yokuts Also in Chawchilla in Kroeber, adjacent to Ysv so perhaps a loan. Almost certainly a loan from somewhere. same underived Newman 1944:18 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura 'uplalli' dove inheritance *ɂuphlal(l)iɂ Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:61 same underived Newman 1944:125 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae hay'na: duck inheritance General Yokuts universal in Kroeber except where waTwaT is the word same derived from verb “to fly” (perhaps only etymologically) Newman 1944:211 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus we-sā'-tah Elder (Sambucus), the tree inheritance *wiše:thaɂ (NY) Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 same underived Merriam 58:567 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus soxgoi, sohgoy, šohgoy elk inheritance *$ohkaj Yokutsan Callagan 1997:59, compare Pmis *hak:a:ja-; Callaghan 2001:325 compares Hill Patwin koko:ja “tule elk” WW %sok same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna lOpiT fish inheritance *lopʰiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; note Mis lapi:s-aj “fish” (Callaghan 1997:32) WW %lvp same underived Newman 1944:226 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera b'akil, bâkil, p'a:k'il flea inheritance *p'a:k'il Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355 same underived Kroeber 1961:206 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. Tiwica, T'iwissa' yellowhammer (Merriam confirms) inheritance *T'iwis(a) Yokutsan Callaghan 1997:38, compare PU *Tiw(:)a same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera g'amâca fly inheritance *k'ama:šiɂ/aɂ Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:62 unknown Kroeber 1961:205 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon au'tca, 'aw'ca' fox (Merriam confirms gray fox, Urocyon 58:547) inheritance *ɂawčhaɂ (NY) Yokutsan Golla 1964:62; Callaghan 2001:325 notes PW *ha:w “fox”, PM *haw “gray fox”, considers this YU-W-M, notes also Mim Ah-wah-ke “gray fox (Merriam) WW %kaw same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna k'oyotwoT' frog inheritance *kojo... Nim-Yokuts Callagan 1997:33, compare MiL kolo:lo same other complex Almost certainly the woT is a suffix. A “koy” root appears also in “turtle” -- related? Kroeber 1961:205 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos T'Oxil eagle inheritance Nim-Yokuts In all Kroeber except Pal., Homet. (Tulamni missing) same underived Newman 1944:217 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer koTònot, go:Tonit gopher snake inheritance *xo:ThongiTh (?) Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1937:60, compare Pmis ho:tang-la: same underived probably complex but unanalyzable given available materials Kroeber 1961:212 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) ya:wil OK N 225 grass, brush inheritance *ja:wil Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:324 notes Csf yah wah “grass”, rejects Csr wai broader (includes brush, grass at least) underived the final -il appears on other forms and might be an affix but I think it's just an epenthetic vowel i with a final /l/ on the root Kroeber 1961:199 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera t'anauwuT, t'anawat grasshopper inheritance *t'a:n-, *č'a:n- Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:62 same underived must be complex but analysis not possible Kroeber 1961:206 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. şitxil ground squirrel (Merriam confirms po:hal Citellus beecheyi group Gray ground squirrel loan into protolanguage *şixthil/*şixi:thal Yokutsan Callagan 1997:38 compare Pmiw *čiTe, and similar costanoan forms in sich, chich WW %sik same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. yonxo' tree squirrel (Merriam confirms Sciurus fossor, S. douglasi 58:549, 551) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Only resemblant is in Yawdanchi same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus huddulu', hihhina' huddulo: N 216 large owl inheritance *huttulu-? Nim-Yokuts Callagan 1997:59 compares some Mi forms, but ... same underived probably sound-imitative in origin Kroeber 1961:202 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis noh'o', ngoho'o grizzly bear inheritance *ŋohɂoɂ Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:60 same underived Kroeber 1961:199 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae cheet'-pah'-po horned toad inheritance Yokutsan Merriam has this form in lists for every subgroup of Yokutsan same underived probably complex but unanalyzable given available materials Merriam 58:561 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus gawa:yu' horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Newman 1944:125 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae be:mamgo:c' hummingbird inheritance Nim-Yokuts the bemam element widespread in Nim-Y in Kroeber; the second element variable -- guch, duts, dui, chui; note Yawdanchi mamgutc (Kroeber) same other complex be-, mam and -go:'c are separable etymologically but in absence of dictionary no analysis Newman 1944:191 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. sògon, so:gon tobacco inheritance *suk... Yok-Utian Callaghan 1937:41 or a very old loan WW %sokon same underived ultimately, a derivation, but I don't think synchronically Kroeber 1961:193 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp we'-o-pun'-pun Junco unique we-o perhaps related to the “small bird” form in (2) same phrase pun'-pun “snow”; this bird is almost always called “snow bird” or “winter bird” Merriam 58:557 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica po'-hook Juniper unique Can't find other attestation but haven't looked at all Merriam same underived Merriam 58:565 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ti'iT (head) louse inheritance *tʰihiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; Callaghan 2007:327 “matches PM *di- 'head louse'” same underived Kroeber 1961:206 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos oxuxum mallard unique unique and same as Pal. form which raises suspicions; see “other notes” for Merriam form which is just “duck” same underived Kroeber 1961:204 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. apTu, ?apTuw manzanita inheritance *ɂaphThiw Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:325 notes Maidu ?ekpy “large manzanita” same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa tc'ikei cord, string (see Yawd Milkweed) M. confirms inheritance Nim-Yokuts Note Yawdanchi tcitik; I suspect a metathesis and am going with Inheritance, especially with Merriam's Chukchansi chek'-kah same underived Kroeber 1961:218 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis hO:nac'hOna:c' milkweed (M. has ho'-nut and says “may be narrow-leaf milkweed”) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Kroeb er has same form for Yawdanchi “milkweed used for gum” same reduplicated Newman 1944:36 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus kah'-pe small tule unique closest form is Merriam's kow-hi? (sic, it's a question mark, not glottal stop) for Chukchansi. Generally, this word is missing. same underived Merriam 58:573 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera k'asup' mosquito inheritance Nim-Yokuts In Yawd, Chukchansi, Gashowu same underived Kroeber 1961:220 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera mo-ki-kits big variegated Sphynx moth unique narrower (a species of moth) other complex has -ic' agentive Merriam 58:563 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor wehèsit, wehe:sit N wehe:sit 199 puma inheritance *wehe:sith Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:333 “Wp wok'en 'mountain lion' matches the Proto-Yokuts form” same underived Kroeber 1961:200 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus Topno, T'opno' mountain quail (Merriam confirms) inheritance *T'iphith Yokutsan Golla 1964:64 includes this form with (?) same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. tah'-sip fresh-water mussels unique Merriam has several forms but they are all different narrower (perhaps fresh-water only) underived Merriam 58:561 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata po:lay olivella beads inheritance Nim-Yokuts Note Yawdanchi pòde “disk beads” narrower (possibly just the beads, not the shell and animal) underived Kroeber 1961:194 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? xayxa:y crested jay loan into protolanguage *xay- Yokutsan unknown Golla 1964:63; probably a loan at some point, word is widespread WW %kaj same reduplicated Newman 1944:36 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla wut'-tuk Pinyon pine (see K, N for “nuts” spelling inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber lists similar forms for Yawd, Wik, Tach, Chun, Harrington had wetʰak' for Pal. narrower (includes just the nuts, which were traded) underived Merriam 58:565 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum k'e:xa:' beads (disks of clam shell); “money” N224 Tachi tu'uts Gayton I p. 23 loan into protolanguage Yokutsan Takic (?) All Nim, plus Palewyami in Kroeber WW %kys narrower (possibly just the beads, not the shell and animal) underived Kroeber 1961:194 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys haşkiywe:'ič gopher (Merriam confirms Thomomys) unique same other complex must be complex but analysis not possible Kroeber 1961:200; Newman 1944:241 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum c'iwik' poison oak (Rhus) (Merriam confirms 58:569) inheritance *č'iwik' Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:64 same underived Kroeber 1961:219 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. naTiT rattlesnake inheritance *naThiTh Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:64 same underived Kroeber 1961:204 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp k'e:ne:c' red ant (Merriam confirms “small red ant” 58:563); inheritance *k'e:nič' Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:60 same other complex looks like the -ic' agentive suffix Newman 1944:191 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus c'ak' blackbird loan into protolanguage *č'ax (*č'ak' in Callaghan 1997;58) Nim-Yokuts unknown Golla 1964:60 WW %chak same underived Newman 1944:176 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis cuxup ($uxup' Newman 1964:8) hawk sp. inheritance Nim-Yokuts In all Kroeber except Pal. (Buena Vista forms are missing) same underived Vowel harmony suggests maybe some kind of suffixing but I don't know what Kroeber 1961:202 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus 'oy'o:y roadrunner inheritance *ɂoyɂoy (NY) Yokutsan Callaghan 1939:60, compare Pmie *?uj(:)uj:u- WW %uji same reduplicated Newman 1944:191 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica tsam'-mal sage herb, A. ludoviciana inheritance Valley Yokuts Merriam has Tinlinne tsam'-mal' same underived Merriam 58:571 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss èpic, 'e:p'iş lake trout, confirmed Newman 1944:226; Merriam has as “salmon” inheritance Yokutsan in all Kroeber except Chunut same underived Kroeber 1961:205 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? hol-poiy'-ye/yah scaly lizard, all lizards unique unique among Merriam's forms broader (a generic for “lizard”) other complex surely complex but no analysis available Merriam 58:561 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna wile:le spotted lizard unique nowhere in Merriam same underived Newman 1944:26 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna yax Kroeber's transcription for Merriam's yah” snake (any) inheritance Yokutsan usually the word for “water-snake” in Kroeber same underived Merriam 58:561 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum traw'-hawt' soaproot inheritance *ThoxoTh Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:65 WW %saka same underived Merriam 58:573 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco iditc, 'it'iç hawk sp. inheritance *?yt'ychH Yokutsan Callaghan 1997:59 says is only Nim, but Palewyami form suggests Yokutsan; compare Mil ?i:t'it, (loanword from Patwin?) same underived Kroeber 1961:211 (#212) 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae mètsa spider inheritance *mə:ča- ?? Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 2001:327 “matches Maidu makaT “spider”” same underived Kroeber 1961:206 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis tsitseu polecat (Merriam confirms Little spotted skunk 58:549) inheritance Nim-Yokuts Universal in Kroeber except Pal., Buena Vista missing same underived Kroeber 1961:201 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae o-gŏ-ko; ho-gŏ-ko toad inheritance Nim-Yokuts Kroeber lists define Nim-Yokuts (no Buena Vista form; Pal. also missing) same underived Merriam 58:561 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) yap-ke tree inheritance Nim-Yokuts also in Yawdanchi in Kroeber same underived Merriam 58:575 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura ko'Te:ya: buzzard inheritance *k'oɂ- Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:61; Callaghan 2001:326 notes Pyn *hoTh “buzzard” distinguished from Pyv *ko?T so perhaps just Valley, not Nim same underived etymologically complex Newman 1944:169 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines T'OdO:' turtle inheritance Nim-Yokuts In Yowl, Yawd in Kroeber same underived Newman 1944:132 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia ?e:şin' black oak (Newman 1944:160 confirms transcription and gloss; Newman 1964:9 to:wixit “white oak” inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber and Merriam both have the cognate form for Palewyami (es-sen-ne in Merriam, esin in Kroeber) same underived Kroeber 1961:211 (#212) 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata k'inim plains oak (Merriam confirms Q. lobata 58:565, also means the acorn) inheritance *k'inim Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:60 broader (includes the acorns) underived Kroeber 1961:198 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica humnul quail (Merriam confirms) inheritance *humn-ul Yokutsan Golla 1964:64 WW %hum same other complex -ul is separated by Golla, I have no idea why Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis la'la, la'la' goose loan into protolanguage *laɂlaɂ Yokutsan unknown Golla 1964:62; Callaghan 1997:59 compare Pcos *la'lak; nisenan la:lak' “gray goose, Maidu lylyk' “flock of geese WW %lala ~ %lak same reduplicated presumably sound-imitative in origin Kroeber 1961:204 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos koi-yet White pelican unique same underived Merriam 58:557 0 2 0 0 0 Tachi hohima Gayton I:42
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica sono:dip wild grapes (Merriam confirms) inheritance Nim-Yokuts WW %sonot same underived again, inadequate materials to get a grip on a long-ish form. Kroeber 1961:219 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) avena wild oats loan Spanish WW %avena same underived Merriam 58:573 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) tahCH-il, Tah-CH>l) Wild sunflower inheritance Nim-Yokuts Gashowu tah'-hah-lah; Chukchansi tahCH'-ă-lah ; Tinlinne tah'-kahl same underived Merriam 58:573 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. şaxaT, caxaT willow (Merriam: S. nigra) 58:567 loan Takic perhaps from Kitanemuk/Serrano before the change *s > /h/; probably into Proto-Nim-Yokuts WW %saka narrower (a kind of willow) underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. hitsits, hidsic' hidsic' N 164 woodrat unique same other complex *hide:s “gather wood” plus -ic' Kroeber 1961:201 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper wekwik, wek'wek', k'e:w N wek'we:k' 191 worm (earthworm) inheritance *wek'wek' Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:66 same reduplicated Kroeber 1961:206 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. baònai, ba'o:nay ba'o:na:y “wasp” N 169 Yellow jacket inheritance *paɂo:nay Nim-Yokuts Golla 1964:66 same underived Kroeber 1961:206 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia Towinits goldfinch unique Note Merriam's Tinlinne poo-too'-in, so may be Valley Yokuts;' Note Miss Towin:-aj- “mockingbird” same other complex Towo'ə “yellow tule pollen”, plus -in?? Gayton 1948(I):23 (Tachi) 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum get-noo'-sil Yerba Santa unique All forms have -sil (or in Yawd, -sit) final, but first elements differ. same other complex -sil clearly separable etymologically Merriam 58:569 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna xo:layxola:y black ant loan N 1944 36; Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna we\wutsoi, wew'coy (n1) loan direction unknown K 1963 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna moon'ay N44W loan direction unknown K 1963 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna pu'us loan direction unknown G1964 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna ya/\wil inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna xoy, xo:y inheritance N1944:175 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna naTHiTH (rattlesnake) inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna me\tsa inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (10)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tc'ikei “cord, string” (c'ikey W&G) inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture baic loan into protolanguage, direction unknown K 1963 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture polwoy “pestle for grinding corn” loan into protolanguage, direction unknown N1944, 1964 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool T'alapH (bow) inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool t'uyos inheritance Golla 1964:60 Jane Hill
house other Thi7 inheritance Golla 1964 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium seasonal no