root

Semantic Field
flora
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
raíz
Meaning Portuguese
raiz

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone tyntana, tytana inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla -wala- (vb) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tyryna-v(y) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7axpil'il inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno ts'aqpilil “root, nerve, bowstring” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno -7ax-pilil' “nerve, sinew; root; bowstring” inheritance A 50 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno c'axpilil “root, sinew” inheritance Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
Cocopa kwshama/, kwshma, shma inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche tyrana inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño -wala [walə]~[wəˈla] inheritance Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7awi:win inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa pehemaa [pəxəˈmaˑ] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu tyna= inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7uuw=smaa inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk ngakawi inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok Su/uli loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño -towla inheritance Elliott Jane Hill
Maidu pi\wi/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave sama inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun hi:koT unknown O77:51 Jane Hill
Nisenan pi:to7 “basket root” (Y. whipplei??) inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute tyna/ “tree root” inheritance Thornes 03:27 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok jo:meca- unknown Jane Hill
Plains Miwok sac:a- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A tepa/s (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M tepa/so unknown Mason 1918:129 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ixa/ai “root, base, foundation” unknown Jane Hill
Serrano -nga:qaw inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute tyn:a-s “stump”, tyn:a: “bottom, base” inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok wi:meja- loan Jane Hill
Southern Ute tynaavI, tynapI inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal wiishi-n inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tynyna(py), tytyna(py), inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo lu/k'i unknown Jane Hill
Washo i:/dew unknown J1958:203,J455 Jane Hill
Western Mono ty/dy/na, ty/dy/na/pY/ inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu se:k inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai ??i\:msma_:, msma/: inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi ho:pHut inheritance K07, G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne ho:pHul inheritance Golla 1964:64 Jane Hill
Yuki kutkin (K1911) inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Yuma shama:/ H3:210 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa -pali -paɺi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona imitɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo javabo; nʉo; nʉomu (all three generic terms) xavabo; nɨo; nɨomu inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw tiís [roots in/on ground], xom [roots extending from trunk to ground] tǐʃ, xɔm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano nugũ nugũ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa iye mi'; yïmun, -mun (tuber) (MM) ije miʔ; jïmun, -mun (tuber) (MM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï lahla (exterior root of a tree) unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani gæyæ̃-bẽ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup tǐh tǐh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua mâ-nat inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi kara (IDS) kara (IDS) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu apu apu inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam nasilik, naskiri (EM72) nasilik, nasikiɾi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak naʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki seu ja, bichibɨ ja seu xã, bitʃibɨ xã unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon kara (A1981); yöikara (E1980); kara (M2000) kara (A1981); ʎöɪkara (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro tébaké tébaké doubtful loan Boran, see also Zaparo See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá našikili (EM72) naʃikili inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani pe-tábu-topa: inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana háiku i-páɾi háiku i-páɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano nʉ'kô (hr) nɨ'kô (hr) inheritance Andoke See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria nʉhco (Waltz) nʉhko (Waltz) inheritance Andoke See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam nasiki (EM72) nasiki inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami pei nasikɨ, nasiki (EM72) pei nasikɨ, nasiki inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna ji'ilaji hiʔilahi unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup tîc tîc inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana winjiwinjiri unique Claire Bowern
Bardi niimunggul(u) niimungkul(u) unknown Claire Bowern
Bunuba wanamirndi unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra rrepara unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu dhulpurru unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhuwala [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Diyari kapada inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU kantji inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang gurrkarr unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng lengkaleng loan Ngarinyin Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi yirrali unique Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Gurindji wirnturru inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru wanamindi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Karajarri wanal inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija lengkal- loan Ngarinyin Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: palkarra loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Mangala wanal unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung bandhang unique NJ Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra winduru Claire Bowern
Mudburra kinyjaka unique Claire Bowern
Ngamini kapara inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi warndal' unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma nhayi unique Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl nimmarunga <nimmarunga> inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi kaparri inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru nimijilaburdany nimijilaburdany unknown Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla wanal Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta wanal pukurl inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta karlka unknown Claire Bowern
Nyikina ninyji ninyji unknown Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul garrinygam; nimal, nirlbun XXngl last one of these is 'bush onion' in Bardi karrinykam; nimal, nirlbun XXngl lasd one of dhese is 'bush onion' in Bardi inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi baḷgara loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu ḏulpurru, gurrka Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu warndal' loan Claire Bowern
Walmajarri warnamirnti doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru karurra unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa jiilawa jiilawa unknown Claire Bowern
Wubuy jang inheritance? Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu guṉinyi unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha kaparri inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka kanpa unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru biṛ biṛ unknown Claire Bowern
Achagua -hítʃu -hítʃu inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco ipìchu ipìtʃu See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari apáre apáɾe See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero iwinaha iwinaha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana ištʰaˀbaʔɨ iʃtʰaˀbaʔɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu hu-r̃aľa See Language page PLE
Yine ko-c̷a; c̷ki See Language page PLE *Piro-Apuriná form is *koc̷a.
Paresi ityahare ityahare inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano tapare See Language page PLE
Trinitario #NAME? See Language page PLE
Baure ṛ̌eki'ton ṛ̌eki'ton unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá tjmã:tiʔ (Postigo11) tsmã:tiʔ (Postigo11) unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Arutani aša aʃa See Language page John Blaha
Sape tu tu See Language page John Blaha
Cha'palaa 'te'lele See Language page PLE *South Barbacoan form is *teleNle.
Bora páxkʰyeé páxkʰjɛέ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane bakó-ʔoko {yajé root}, -tano bakó-ʔoko {jajέ root}, -tano See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio yöi miik jöɪ mik inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect kara kara See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai imity, mity imitɨ, mitɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana umït umɨt inheritance See Language page PLE
Tiriyó mu(nu) (tuberous root) mu(nu) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Mapoyo yëhE miti'-bë jɛhə miti'-bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai yi-miči-n yi-miči-n inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yabarana miti See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa isírapre, uéichit dʒi:ʂe See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo iñuŋu iñuŋu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca chihiza ʂihitʂa See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí ašišĩĩ See Language page PLE Colombia: ʔayširə.
Northern Emberá nékarra nékarra See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena 'kʰar̃a See Language page PLE Also means 'plant'.
Guayabero tatín-t, ne-tatín-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan petakomét petakomét unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán setsa´fa sɛtsaʔɸa See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra xixpori tʂĩtʂpoɾĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro o´tintih oʔtintih See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez taxs taʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna tʃumãʔa tʃumãʔa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina haisi haisi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa tbɨtí-xa tbɨtí-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke #NAME? #NAME? doubtful loan Tukanoan See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé to tãkü See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Máku lemekeči lemeketʃi See Language page PLE
Ashuar kangkáp kaŋkap See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa kagkap kaŋgkap See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna kagkáp kangkáp inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect kɔm inheritance cognate Dâw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Rio Negro dialect kɔm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses tapun tapun inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo ta'põ See Language page PLE ta'βuṣ̌ 'fiberous roots'. *Panoan *tapono with related meanings 'tendon, foot'.
Katukina tapõ See Language page PLE
Pacahuara ta'pono See Language page PLE
Shipibo-Konibo ta-põ See Language page PLE
Yaminahua tapo See Language page PLE Cf. 'foot' 04.370.
Chácobo tapono; kano tapono; kano inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jntiy xntij unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua angu angu See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá angu angu See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua angu angu See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano sapi sapi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa dau uwäyupjä dau uwæjuphæ unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva illellaixu iʤeʤaixu unique See Language page Becky Walker
Bará dɨ̃'kõ See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano ~je-ba ~je-ba See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana nʉcõ nɨkɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna ~je-ba ~je-ba inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti dɨ̃́ɨ̃kõ dɨ̃́ɨ̃kõ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana dɨ̃ʔ'kõ dɨ̃ʔ'kõ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano nuugṹ nuugṹ See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca riʔkoa riʔkoa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo dɨ̃'kõ dɨ̃'kõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka dɨ̃'kõ dɨ̃ʔkõ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja nɨ̃́kʰṍnĩ́ nɨ̃́kʰṍnĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje saivʉ saibʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona sita; sita-mo sita; sita-mo inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya sitamo sitamõ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana epkyjymy epkɨjɨmɨ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Wayampi #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché apo inheritance See Language page PLE
Chiriguano h-'apo; r-'apo inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní h-apo; t-apo See Language page PLE
Sirionó erao erao inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ɨwɑpo, apo ɨwɑpo, apo inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina tsiñ̵íínhonfe, tsiñ̵ííhonco tsiɲ̵ĩ́ĩ́ʔõɸɛ, tsiɲ̵ĩ́ĩ́ʔõko unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto háinao háinao See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto háina.o háina.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto haina.o haina.o inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito ánija ániha unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo tapuka (of a tree) tapuka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari kašimain kaʃimain See Language page PLE Means 'foot' 04.370.
Araona akʷi-c̷aha; c̷aha See Language page PLE *Tacn form is *c̷axa.
Ese Ejja e-saxa; ɓisiʔikʷi inheritance See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo akwi saxa; e-saxa (Girard 1971) akwi saxa; e-saxa See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana eď̶ao See Language page PLE
Cavineña e-tiri e-tiri unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara saphi sapʰi See Language page PLE
Itonama ahmi-mus See Language page PLE
Kwazá -tswe, -jã, -kãjã, -koke -tswe, -jã, -kãjã, -koke See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané iri'bin See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima ɗuɗuɬ-kʷa ɗuɗuɬ-kʷa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai oke; ɨuɨr maksi oke; ɨuɨr maksi unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang jãre -yãre See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi rari rari See Language page PLE
Chipaya šepˀa; lxomi See Language page PLE The latter is a small edible tuberous root. A thick root is pira.
Mocoví l-paʔaʔ See Language page PLE
Pilagá le-pataʔ See Language page PLE Lit. '3pp-root'.
Toba l-paʔaʔ See Language page PLE
Lengua #NAME? See Language page PLE Lit. '?-foot' 04.370.
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité apkapminaok See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet awhak; aykepmenek See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay -la-hʷec̷iʔ See Language page PLE Singular form. Plural is -la-hʷec̷i-l.
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja fʷetis See Language page PLE
Maca ɬefitec̷ (m.) See Language page PLE
Nivaclé ɬ-fetas root https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo ta'posi See Language page PLE A tap root is ee'ri-keruui, cf. 12.550. Other roots that entwine are ee'ri; r. of fallen tree is 'kuč-ee'ri.
Mapudungun folil See Language page PLE Ranquel form is volil.
Qawasqar wes-pel See Language page PLE wes is 'earth'. Also Ag records kskareks; alo. Bo records wes-epel for Central QWS.
Selknam hari See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'tˀapr See Language page PLE Refers to root used for coloring.
Lokono kyra kɨɾa root Pet 1987:369 Camille Unger
Kariña mity mitɨ root Yamada 2010:772 Camille Unger