Big Smokey Valley Shoshone

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
shh
Location
37.00°, -117.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location pan, panai”, pa7ai inheritance Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar tya-syn “also, again” inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other ojoon “all, everything”, no- “all, every” inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar -mai (on nouns) unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ta-wincyh(-a”), ta-wincih(-a”) inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing missing Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ku-kkwi-ppyh “smoke, ashes” inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -ka inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body kwa7im-pyh, kwain-pyh, wa7im-pyh; pi- inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality acai” inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body sappyh inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tukku-nankwa”(-ttyn) inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality pia (-n) inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ky-cci7ah “ to bite something hard” inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tuu” inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body pyy”-pin inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puhki”, puhkwi” (of breath) inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ya, ya-ccih “sore, wound” inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body cuhni, cuhwi-ppyh inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pici inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body sua-kkaih “to breathe, to be breathy” inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment waihja”-nkyh (VT) inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human tua” “boy (son, child) inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion to7aih, to7oih, to7ih (w Ips); tyn-to7aih “to climb up” inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment pakyna-ppyh “cloud, fog” inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality yicyi” inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion kimma” (sg, pl) ki-kimma” (dl) inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ku-hanni” inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality caanku “rightly, properly, well” inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental tycyyh unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental jakai” (sg subj), namoi (dl, pl subj) inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact -ka7ah "to cut something flexible (sg obj), inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time tapai “sun, day”, tape, tapaini “day, noon”/ tapeni inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state tiaih (sg subj) inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact hota” inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna pia-7isa inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality tucca inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental na-puisaih, na-pusaih inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body hipi” inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality pasa” inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ke kyma-kkantyn (of blade), inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment hukkumpin inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body nainkih, nenkih inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment soko-pin, soko-ppyh inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body tykkah inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna nojo, nojo-pin inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body puih inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kwita-ppyh inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion annih “fall” inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality manakkwa inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body juhu-pin inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship appy loan direction unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental ty7yjah(-n), tyijah(-n) inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna pyysi-ppyh inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment waihja-ppyh inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna penkwi inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion okwai”, okai” inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment hypinky-ppyh inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion jycy” “fly, get up, arise” inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pakyna-ppyh “cloud, fog inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body nampai inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora huu-ppih “wild strawberry, grows on a kind of cactus” inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality caan-tyn “generous, good” inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state naa”, naha” “be, become, grow, grow up, dwell” inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body pampi-(pyhy) “hair of head” (compare “feather”) semantic shift Jane Hill
hand mano mão body moo, mo7o, (mo7i); na- IP, ma”- IP inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ma inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body pampi” semantic shift Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental nankah inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality pyttyn inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion waci-tikkih “secrete, hide, keep secret” inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -tokoh "punch, push" inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other cai” “hold in hand, lead” inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hakani “of being” inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ny inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -kuppan inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body kohai inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body pihja” inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact paikkah, pekkah (sg obj), inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental sumanaih “know, be acquinted with, learn” inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment pia-paa-katy-tyn unique Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental jahnai” inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment syki unique Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing missing Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body oon, oom-pin (knee to ankle) inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion hapi” (sg), kopi” (dl, pl) inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment kwo-7ainkah-kwicai-caih “lightning” unique Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing missing Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nymyn inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality kypattax inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna posia, posia-ccih “louse” inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body sonko inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human tenkwan “man, adult” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tukku” “meat, flesh, body, mountain sheep” inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment mya inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pi7i, pii inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body tympai “lips, mouth”, type (Cherry Creek) inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human na-tappinia-ppyh “name, signature” unique Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body kappitto “back of head, occipital area”; unique Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality ty-kynna “near, narrow” unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body kutax “larynx, neck” inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality yky loan direction unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time tukanih “night, dark” inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ke inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body mupin inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality pyaittym-pyh (hum, anim, thing) inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number symmy inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing missing Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar kymmai “different one (someone else) inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kammah(-n) dull pain inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human nymy (nymi) inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact to-ppaih “beat up” inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment paa-7yma”-pin (N) inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour ainka, enka- (Cherry Creek) inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture po7ai inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tyntana, tytana inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pisi” pisi-ppyh “decayed, rotten, something rotten, pus, mold” inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment pasiam-pin inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental missing missing Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact -kittuih, unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental puni”, pui” “look at, see” inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kyma (of edge) inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wihi” unknown Jane Hill
short corto curto quality kypix unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body coa-ppyh inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental na-suain-tyn “bashfull” inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state katy” (sg), inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body po7an, poan, pohon “bark, skin, peeling, surface layer” inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tukum-pin, tukum-pana, tuku-pphy inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body yppyih (sg), ykkoih (dl, pl); sysymih “go to sleep” inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality tytyn inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment ku-kkwi-ppyh “smoke, ashes” inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tusi” loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact -pahka (sg. obj), -paakuih (pl. obj.) "crack, break, split"; paijah (intr) inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact -kicah -kica7ah "squeeze, mash" unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact -cakkwih "stab, pierce" unknown Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wyny” (sg) inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment taci7ym-pin inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other tytykkax inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora huu”-pin “tree, stick, wood, club” inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment tym-pin inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body mu-pici”, mu-picih, pici”, picih inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pekwi “puff up, swell up” inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion pa-hapi” inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kwaisi, kwesi (Cherry Creek) inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ma- “non-specific demonstrative” inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ma- inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality pohonan, pohanan inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality tatuih inheritance Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental sua” “to breathe, to feel, to think, pertaining to the mind inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar si-, se, i-, e- (near, touchable), inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar yn inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number paihtyn, pahai inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body kuiccih (inside) unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact tawi” “throw something heavy” (sg obj) inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment to7ompaix, toom-piccih inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact -tamah (sg. obj) "knot, tie", tamiih (pl obj) inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body aikon, ekon inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body taman inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other puinuah, puinui”, puinukka” (Cherry Creek dialect) inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number waattyn (wahan “twice”) inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body wy-tto7aih inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion mia” (sg, pl), mi-miah (dl) inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment paa inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nyhwyh (nyhi) (dl), nymmyn (nymmi) pl semantic shift Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar tahwyh (tahai) (dl), tammyn (tammi) pol inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality paa-coih “to be wet” inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hiin, hakai (of saying), hakani (doing) inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar himpai, himpe inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar haka-ppun which way? inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour tosa” inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar haka-tyn sg, haka-tyhwyh (dl), haka-tyyn (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship kwyhy (kwyhi), kwyy inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment nyai”-pin inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body kasa inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human hypi inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body ppyih-kysappax inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ohwa”, oha”, oa” inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ynnyn (sg), myhwyh (dl), mymmyn (pl) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tasamincih black ant, ant (generic) inheritance *tasi'a Numic Stubbs 49 (2008:45) (Central and Southern Numic only) same other complex has -tsi ABS Crapo1976:106 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana wancih, kwaty” (Duckwater: kwahaten) antelope inheritance *wanci Numic Stubbs 53 (2008:45); what is the kwahatyn word, I wonder??? Also in Comanche from 19th C same underived may mean “gray-haired one” Crapo 1976:106 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus hunan Badger (Taxidea) inheritance *huLa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 132 (2008:59) same underived Crapo 1976:108 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus be'-ah gwin'-nah bald eagle (Halioeetus) inheritance *kwi'na Numic Stubbs 717b (2008;131) Western, Central Numic; this adds “big” same phrase big eagle -- note that sometimes Golden Eagle gets this label Merriam 61:73 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata mah'-ki-ho-ve (RM Band-tail pigeon (Columba fasciata) inheritance *makahVwi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 676 (2008:126) same underived final -vi seems not to be from -pi ABS but is old *-wi animal classifier Merriam 61:41 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp hono-ppiccih Bat inheritance *ho'napi Numic Stubbs 126 (2008:58), western & Central Numic narrower (a species of bat, probably) other complex has -piccih ABS Crapo 1976:109 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor a'nii Beaver (Castor) inheritance *ha'ni Numic Stubbs 155 (2008:61) (may be only C. Numic) same underived Crum & Dayley 1993:264 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp pippusi stinkbug (M:beetle; 13-striped June Beetle inheritance *pippusi Numic Stubbs 311 (2008:83), possibly with pi- “with backside” same underived Crapo 1976:182 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus sai-ppyh reeds, tules (M: Big round tule (Scirpus lacustris) inheritance *sɨyi Northern Uto-Aztecan I think this goes with Stubbs 1735 (shown in reconstruction based on only Takic forms) which needs to be fixed since Numic is clearly sayi, see Kawaiisu seevibɨ same other complex has has -pɨ ABS Merriam 61;93 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis pō>n-he-atz (RV, RM) Big skunk (Mephitis) inheritance *po(C)ni Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275) same other complex has -tsi ABS Merriam 61:69 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus pia 'isa, wonko ica wolf inheritance *isa'a(N)pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008;112), with “big” and “pine” increments and consonant gradation in ica same phrase Crapo 1976:110, 149 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis wasy”-pin mountain sheep, game animals unique Central Numic From “kill several” -- not similarity with %lewasip, though broader (can label other large game) derived kill-ed (with -pɨ Crapo 1976:175 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kwinaa generic for any large bird, eagle (M: A bird inheritance *kwi'na Numic Stubbs 717b (2008;131) Western, Central Numic narrower (does not include small birds) underived Crapo 1976:127 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger tuu-tasamincih black ant calque English black-black.ant same phrase Crapo 1976:106 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus wyyta bear (M: Black Bear (Ursus americanus) inheritance Numic See N. Paiute wɨdaɂa same underived Crapo 1976:109 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus kammu jackrabbit (M: Black-tail jackrabbit (Lepus texianus group) inheritance *kaNmu Numic Stubbs 1710 (2008:243) same underived Crapo 1976:146 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus tuu-ppihtyn pokwai-mpih wild blacberry, black currant berry inheritance *pokoN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 183 (2008:65) broader (several kinds of berries, apparently, at least for modern speakers) other complex has -pi ABS Crapo 1976:110 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? kah'-hah (RV, RM) Blue grouse (Dendragapus) inheritance *kaka “quail, grouse” Numic Stubbs 1702a (2008:241), probably shouldn't be combined with quail same underived Merriam 61:73 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tukku-ppiccih bobcat (M: Bob-cat (Lynx fasciatus) inheritance *tukkuC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:2000) WW %tuku same other complex has -piccih ABS Crapo 1976:112 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera a'ipputunkih Butterfly inheritance *??-pu(tonki) Numic Stubbs 326 (2008:85), T. Shoshone has aasi-, not a'i”, but Stubbs puts in same set same underived etymologically some kind of phrase Crapo 1976:115 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing inheritance missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? ), zi'-vitch, chi'-itch (RM)tsai-pittsih blue jay (M: Woodhouse jay (Aphelocoma) loan into protolanguage *ca'i Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown a widespread arealism, but Stubbs has for PNUA (2009 (2008:68) WW %chaj same other complex has -piccih ABS Miller 1972:157 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? putumpittsi; wampuni, wopin tottontaki, woppimpono 295 “type of woodpecker” woodpecker inheritance unknown Crum & Dayley 1993:281 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing inheritance missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. wo'ai chipmunk, squirrel (M: chipmunk (Eutamias) inheritance *wo'ta Numic Stubbs 2100 (2008:289), might be PUA same underived Crapo 1976:117 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pas”-wum'-be (RV); bă-so-wum'-be (RM, for all swallows) 61:43 pasokompii “swallow” Duckwater 278 Cliff swallow (Petrochelidon) inheritance Northern Uto-Aztecan new set for “swallow with paso... unknown Merriam 61:75 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana si'-ah (RV, RM); coot (Fulica) inheritance *saya Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 217 (2008:69) same underived Merriam 61:79 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tapun Cottontail rabbit (Lepus auduboni) inheritance *tapuC/*taput Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1707 (2008:242) same underived Crapo 1976:120 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. soho-pin Cottonwood (populus) inheritance *sohopin Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 542a (2008:111, only Numic and Hopi same underived Crapo 1976:120 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans ica-ppy, ica Coyote (Canis lestes or ochropus) inheritance *isa'a(N)pa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008:112) with consonant gradation same underived Crapo 1976:121 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos gak' (?)RV; kahk RM; Crapo 110 haih raven, crow; kaa”, kaa-cci crow Crow (Corvus americanus) inheritance *kak Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 584 (2008:117) (I think haih is Yokutsan, check! same underived sound imitative but throughout the family so not a neologistic sound-im, better simplex Merriam 61:73 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii mui-ppeh Jimsonweed loan Central Numic Takic may be related to “crazy, drunk” words but probably ultimately a loan from Takic “moon” word WW %moji ~ %moni same other complex has -pɨ ABS Miller 1972:162 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus tyhyjya deer (M: mule deer inheritance *tɨkɨya Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121) same underived Crapo 1976:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing ponderosa only, wung-gah-be RM 61:53 inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris isa-punku, ica satii (Cherry Creek); satee Duckwater 282 dog inheritance *isa'a(N)pa *puNku Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008:112) compounded with the “pet” word; apparently satii not used in BSVS proper same phrase coyote-pet (canine-pet?) Crapo 1976:125 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura haaiwi Dove (Zenaidura) inheritance *hayɨwi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 675 (2008:126) same underived final -vi seems not to be from -pi ABS but is old *-wi animal classifier Crapo 1976:125 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae pyjyn duck (M: Ducks (all kinds) inheritance *picV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 706a (2008:130) same underived Crapo 1976:126 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kunukippeh elderberry plant inheritance *kunuki Numic Stubbs 180 (2008;64) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Crum & Dayley 1993:269 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus pateheya elk (M: Elk (Cervus) inheritance *pa-*tɨkɨya Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121) unknown Crum & Dayley 1993:278 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna penkwi Fish (any) inheritance *paNkwi Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived etymologically a phrase -- water-fish Crapo 1976:132 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. un-să ban'-nah (RM 61:41) Flicker (Colaptes) inheritance Central Numic has the -pana element noted by Troike for this bird; same word recorded by Merriam at Round Mountain for W. Shoshoni WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same phrase ansa pannah red bird? Merriam 61:73 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ana-muih Fly inheritance *muwi/muCpi Numic Stubbs 887 (2008:151) same phrase ana- (sometimes in a “mosquito” word? plus 'fly' Crapo 1976:133 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing inheritance missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon waahni fox (M: Gray fox (Urocyon) inheritance *waCni Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 562 (2008:113) same underived Crapo 1976;134 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna pa-jakkosa, pa-jakwaca, waako (bullfrog at Duckwater) frog, )M:Frog (Rana) inheritance -jakwaca with pa- "water" WW %wakat same phrase water-? Crapo 1976;134 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos kwinaa; eagle, also generic for any large bird (M:Golden eagle (Aquila) inheritance *kwi'na Numic Stubbs 717b (2008;131) Western, Central Numic; this adds “big” in “modern” form same underived Crapo 1976:110, 127 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. pokwai-mpih, poko-mpih; pokono-ppyh the bush currant berry inheritance *pokoN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 183 (2008:65) broader (several kinds of berries, apparently, at least for modern speakers) other complex has -pi ABS Crapo 1976:122 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer kokon (Duckwater: kokkon) bullsnake (M:Gopher or bull snake (Pityophis) inheritance *koNwa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009 (2008:279) same underived Crapo 1976:114 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) soni-ppyh grass, hay (M: grass (any) inheritance *sonV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1029 (2008:166) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Crapo 1976:138 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera aa-ttankih Grasshopper inheritance *attaNkaC Numic Stubbs 1036 (2008:167) narrower (a species of grasshopper) underived probably complex etymologically Crapo 1976:138 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. tseep' (RV, pencil at RM with ??; tsippih duckwater 291 Gray ground squirrel (Citellus beecheyi group) inheritance *cippi Numic Stubbs 2098b (2008:289) same underived perhaps sound-imititive originally Merriam 61:69 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. tsikih squirrel, golden mantled squirrel loan into protolanguage *tɨku/ciku Uto-Aztecan Gabrielino Stubbs 2093a, b (2008;288) WW %sik same underived probably onomatopoeia in origin Crum & Dayley 1993:291 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus mom-piccih, mum-piccih owl (M: Great horned owl (Bubo) inheritance *muhuN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1542 (2008;227) same other complex has -piccih ABS Crapo 1976:159 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis to'-să woo'-rah (RV unless otherwise noted) Grizzly bear (Ursus horribilis) inheritance Numic See N.P. wɨdaɂa ; Grizzly also “white bear” in Comanche same phrase Merriam 61:67 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae mahaccianka, maccinkipo Horned toad (Phrynosoma) inheritance *makaCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1333 (2008:202) same underived must be complex etymologically Crapo 1976:143 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus punku horse semantic shift *puNku/pukku Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) broader (can include other domestic animals) underived Crapo 1976:143 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae , be'she (RM) 61:45; pisi Duckwater 280 humming bird inheritance *piti Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1184 (2008:185) same underived Merriam 61:77 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. nymy-pahmon wild tobacco inheritance Yokutsan Loan into Proto-Central Numic WW %pa7mo same phrase Indian tobacco Crapo 1976:145 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp dahk' hoo'-choo snow little.bird (RV), dah'-kahn-ze = snow bird RM 61:45 aso tah-kahn'tah-roi takka”-”snow”; takkahuittsuu snow bird (Duckwater 284) Junco (Junco) inheritance all Numic has “snow-bird” but every language has different plug-in lexical items! same phrase snow bird Merriam 61:77 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica sow-wah'-be, RM 61:53 Juniper (Juniperus) inheritance *sama Central Numic Stubbs 416 (2008:95 same other complex has -pi ABS Merriam 61:85 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera pampipusia head lice inheritance *pampi-pusia Numic Stubbs 1358a (2008:205) (the pusia word; pampi is the head/pot word, actually UA) same phrase head-louse Crum & Dayley 1993:278 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos koo-rab'-be (RM); Mallard (Anas boschas) inheritance *kutV Numic Note Kawaiisu kura-; also a Chem. form; my notes in Stubbs for this new “mallard” set. Possibly related to “neck” unknown Merriam 61:47 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing inheritance missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa pitsitepuhippeh milkweed inheritance pitsa “milk” puhi “green” unknown 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing inheritance missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos sajemma mockingbird inheritance same underived Crapo 1976:153 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera wawahtyn Mosquito inheritance *wa ... Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 894 gives only southern forms (2008:152), but looks promising; see also Stubbs 162 (2008:62) same underived Crapo 1976;154 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera tso'appatuntsih moth (ghost, spirit) semantic shift *so'aC Numic Stubbs 2064 (2008:285) W. and Central Numic only broader (includes ghosts) other complex tso'appeh ghost, plus -tun-tsi Crum & Dayley 1993:292 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor toja-tukku-ppiccyh Mountain lion (Felis hippolestes) doubtful calque *tukkuC English Stubbs 1306 (2008:200), with toja “mountain”; Comanche does this too same phrase mountain-wildcat Crapo 1976:112 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus too'-wit-tă (RM) Mountain Quail (Oreortyx) inheritance Numic Southern Paiute (Amargosa) too-wit; might be areal, Numic dubious if not found elsewhere; could it be related to Walker Lake and Tumpisa Shoshone tu'uk, tu:k forms??? same underived Merriam 61:41 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata po'an, poan ? shell, skin, bark, outher layer inheritance *po'owa Stubbs 1907 (2008:267), Olivella in W. Mono, “seashell” in T. Shoshone. Perhaps OK for all shells, Crapo quite inadequate. unknown Crapo 1979 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? kaiyattsih, kayattsih pine jay (M: Pinyon jay (Cyanocephalus) loan into protolanguage Central Numic unknown In Tumpisa Shoshone for Aphelocoma “scrub jay” WW %kaj same other complex has -tsi ABS Crum & Dayley 1993:268 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla wa'a”pin pine tree (M: Pinyon or nut pine (Pinus monophylla) inheritance *wa'aC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 414, usually “cedar, juniper” same other complex has -pi ABS Crapo 1976:163 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys jyha”, jyha”-piccih gopher (M: Pocket gopher (Thomomys) unique Central Numic Note Northern Paiute Note Northern Paiute yɨngngaciba “gopher” same underived Crapo 1976:137 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum nat'-soo ō>k ? Poison oak loan English nahtasu “medicine, poison”, pls ok from 'oak' same phrase poison oak Merriam 61:89 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. to'-gwah (RV), to-go'-ah (RM) 61:49 rattlesnake (Crotalus) inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Numic Stubbs 2009, this prefix only in Numic same underived etymologicall a phrase, rock-snake Merriam 61:81 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp hu'nitan red ant unique same underived Crum & Dayley 1993:266 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus pakancukki; saaipakantsukkih “red-winged blackbird” Duckwater 282 blackbird (M: Red-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius) inheritance *paCkwa Northern Uto-Aztecan Note *paakonga (Cupan *paaxingish, Kit. pakongyat. Tumpisa Shoshone pokkotoppe, pakkwatoppe unknown Merriam 61:75 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis sah'-nah kwin'-nah RV, RM Swainson hawk (Buteo swainsoni) inheritance *kwi'na Numic Stubbs 717b (2008:131) with increment sana- also recorded at Duckwater for “eagle”?? same phrase pinyon big.bird??? Merriam 61:73 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus un-nup'-pe (RM) 61:41 Road runner (Geococcyx) inheritance Central Numic Tumpisa Shoshone üngüppi unknown Merriam 61:73 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis pi'-gan (RV); tan-no'-an-ne'-che (RM 61:47) Ruddy Duck (Erismatura) inheritance Note Stubbs *kan “duck”, SUA only, 707 (2008:130) same underived Merriam's Skull Valley Gosiute: 61:301, Merriam RV 61:79 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing inheritance missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss akai fish (M:Salmon trout (big trout); “Salmon” at Duckwater inheritance *akai Numic Stubbs 868 (2008:148) same underived Crapo 1976:132 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? tŭ'-moi (RV), dĕ'-hoi (RM) Scaly lizard (Sceloporus) inheritance *tɨko Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1336 (2008:203) SUA only, needs elevation. And perhaps unite with Stubbs 1342 same underived has tɨ- “earth” prefix etymologically Merriam 61:81 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna huiccuu small bird (generic) inheritance *hutti/huttu Numic Stubbs 205c (2008:69) same underived Crapo 1976:110 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna pokoicii, pokwaicii lizard (generic) inheritance *poko Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1338 (2008:203); distribution looks areal,Western & Central Numic, Tubatulabal check Yokuts, Miwok broader (generic for “lizard”) other complex has -tsi ABS Crapo 1976:150 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tokoa snake (generic), rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-*koNwa Numic Stubbs 2009 (2008:279), prefix only in Numic same underived etymologicall a phrase, rock-snake Crapo 1976:179 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing inheritance missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata ŭ'-chip; ittse-ppeh “Rhus trilobata, sumac” Miller 1972 170 Sour berry; Aromatic sumac (Rhus trilobata) inheritance Numic Note Kawaiisu Ɂiičivɨ, possibly a loan from Kitanemuk hɨč “Rhus trilobata), but maybe this is a different Numic word??? I'm going with Numic but worrying about the *s- forms same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam's Skull Valley Gosiute: 61:313 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco pik-ker'-ige RM; sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius) inheritance *pik- Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 727 (2008:132); (Mono, Timbisa Shoshone, Round Mountain, Hopi piikwa “lesser nighthawk” ???. This form in Central, Western Numic WW %kili same underived may be onomatopoeia Merriam 61:73 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae mankaccywasih, mankasuancih Spider unique Note *mari-soka “tarantula” in TrC ... and so element in *tokoso (Stubbs 2061, 2062 (2008:285)) narrower (a species of spider, probably) other complex has -tsi ABS; stems clearly complex but no analysis Crapo 1976;180 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis tu-rŭ'-ah Little spotted skunk (Spilogale) unique same underived Merriam's Skull Valley Gosiute: 61:291 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae pi'-ah gwah'-ne Toad (Bufo) inheritance *kwa'Lo Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 941 (2008:157), modified with pia “big” same phrase big frog/toad Merriam 61:81 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) huu”-pin A tree, stick wood, club inheritance *huCV Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 (2008:47) often “arrow” broader (includes wood and wood products) other complex has -pi ABS Crapo 1976:194 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera oop' Tree yucca (Hesperoyucca arborescens) inheritance There's a set here, find it! Looks a bit like the “mesquite” word unknown Merriam 61:59 2 1 0 red root in basket designs 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wen'num'-bitch, we'-hum'-bitch (RM); Turkey buzzard (Cathartes) inheritance *wiLhukuN Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 727 (2008:132); (Mono, Timbisa Shoshone, Round Mountain, Hopi piikwa “lesser nI think Stubbs 335 is absurd, but there is something going on here, note Hopi wisoko, Serrano wirokt, wiru in southern languages, etc. But wiho is only Western Numic.ig same other complex has -piccih ABS Merriam 61:43 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines an-not'-se (RM) enna-tsi turtle (not here) inheritance *ayaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2539 (2008:316), with na- increment like in Tumpisa Shoshone same other complex has -tsi ABS Merriam 61:49 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata missing inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica kah-har'-rah, tah-kah'-gah (RM) Valley Quail (Lophortyx) inheritance *takkaka/kakkata Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1702 (2008:241); widespread arealism WW %kaka same underived ultimately onomatopoeia Merriam 61:41 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing inheritance missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis nĕ'-gint (RV) RM “geese, all kinds”, with WCG nu-gun'dah (61:47) Western Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) inheritance *nakɨ Numic Stubbs 711 (2008:130); looks like only W. and Central Numic same underived Merriam 61:79 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos pah' maw'-guts/mo'-guts (water sack) White pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos inheritance same phrase Merriam 61:77 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing inheritance missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica cia-pin rose bush (wild) (M: Wild rose (Rosa sp.) inheritance *ci'aN Numic Stubbs 190 (2008:65) same other complex has -pi ABS Crapo 1976:170 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) akken sunflower inheritance *(pa)-'akka(C) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2191 (2008:299) same underived Crum & Dayley 1993:263 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. syhy-pin willow tree, generic tree in Cherry Creek dialect (M: willow (Salix sp.) inheritance *sɨhɨ Numic Stubbs 2486 (2008:332); is this related to the *sɨhɨ Rhus trilobata words? Both used for basketry withes. narrower (a species of willow, probably) other complex has -pi ABS Crapo 1976:188 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. kaan rat (M: wood rat, Neotoma (RM) inheritance *kawa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:213) same underived Crapo 1976:167 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) piaken caterpillar inheritance *pi'akɨC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2527 (2008:338) same underived Miller 1972:157 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper wo'a-pin Worm inheritance *wo'a Numic Stubbs 2526 (2008:338) same other complex has -pi ABS Crapo 1976:195 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. paijan Yellow jacket, bee, honeybee unique broader (bees, etc.) underived Crapo 1979:110 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia sĕ-hoo-choo (willow bird) (RV); so'-e-yu'-e-che (RM) 61:45 Yellowbird (Astragalinus) inheritance same phrase willow bird Merriam 61:77 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing inheritance missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna tasamincih “black ant, ant (generic) inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna huiccuu “small bird (generic)” inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna ana-muih, anka-muih inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna isa-punku inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna soni-ppyh “grass, hay” inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna tyhyja inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tokoa “rattlesnake, snake (generic)” inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna mankaccywasih, mankasuancih, makasuancih unknown Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress missing missing Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pakan arrow, penis inheritance *pakaN- Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1778; in meaning "arrow" only in Numic simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other ma-ca-ttunaah-py a tool for straightening something inheritance *tuna Numic Stubbs 2011 2208 'straight' compound-other complex hand- straight-ABS Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pasakkittah basket inheritance *pasa(ta) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1706; with /kk/ from somewhere, maybe trying to be English? compound Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material toonampi wosa small basket for storage of seeds or berries inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 phrase Miller 1972 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material coon beads inheritance *coiN Numic Also in Southern Numic; Stubbs 1513 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology pisa-ppyh, pisa"-pin(-tta") red ochre, red face-paint clay inheritance *pisa, *paisa Numic not in Stubbs other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool aiti, aitikko bow and arrow, gun inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation sy-wocca water bottle, water basket inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 ompound Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation tepooppeh paper, book unique Duckwater derived pooH 'write, mark' Miller 1972 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tekwa-ni chief, boss inheritance derived tekwa" 'to talk' Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool pia-7anni-nymphy big club unique ty-7anni-nympyh 'small club compound, derived 7annih 'to fall' Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress pihi-wyaH breech clout, loin cloth, shirt tail unique H is ", Excel keeps changing way derived Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
cook food food ku-hanni" to cook, roast unique compound fire-make Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
corpse food tiaih-ppyh corpse inheritance *ja7ay Numic Stubbs 2011 656 derived tiaih 'to die (sg)' Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology nykkah to dance inheritance *nykkaC Numic Stubbs 2011 633 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing spirit helper poha-nym-ppyh?? Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool poton digging stick inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool kwaisi-7awy dipper unique compound tail-cup Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology na-puisaih, na-pusaih to dream unknown Stubbs 2011 718; Central Numic only derived Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cikkinah chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
earring other nainkihtoon, nainkihtsoon earring unique duckwaer, also nainkisimoo compound nainkih 'ear'-tsoon 'bead' Miller 1972 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology co7a-ppiccih ghost, monster (mythological creature) inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool koso-pin fire drill, match (old word) unique other complex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kuna" wood, firewood, burning wood inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology mujatainka flute (used in Sun Dance, not locally) unique looks loan-y simplex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other ty-huu"pin(-tta" Handgame counters (literally 'rock sticks' unique compound Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food waseppin game unknown Central Numic only, wasyG other complex waseG to kill (dl, pl obj) Miller 1972 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology co7a-ppyh, co7a ghost, spirit of dead person inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology naku-ppyh grave inheritance *ku7way Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 322 derived Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
alcohol food ontom-paa whiskey unique compound brown-water Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics mui-ppeh Jimsonweed loan Tubatulabal Takic or Chumash by way of Tubatulabal into Proto-Central Numic WW %moji ~ %moni other complex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology poha-kantyn Indian doctor inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived power- Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food paijan bee, honey semantic shift painan in west; is this word for 'bee' anywhere else? simplex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
house other kahni house inheritance *kaNLi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1213 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food tykai" to hunt unknown ty- plus probably a 'walk around' word *ka7i; Stubbs 2011 puts this with 1235 *tyho, seems a serious stretch simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wiin knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ty-ta-mma-wy-kkicah mortar (for a pestle) unique compound Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
necklace other kotokki" necklace unknown Is this *koLoka or *kuta? simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool tyci-typpykkih awl unique compound, derived pointed.tool-to.make.hole Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tsokkainompeh pestle, any object used to pound dry food unique this is with 'stone' IP compound, other complex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
pinole food kwini" gruel (made of pine nuts) semantic shift looks like acorn word??? simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other pahmun-toi pipe loan *to7i Yokuts, Sierra Miwok pahmun is Yokuts loan but headword is C, W Numic WW %pa7mo, %to7i compound tobacco- Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
pitch food sana"-pin pine pitch, sap of tree inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool wittua pot, pan, cup inheritance *wiC-tuhuwa Numic Stubbs 2011 1713 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool hya-ppi-ttan na-mokoccih quiver inheritance WW %mok phrase bow.and.arrow-abs/acc refl-sack Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology wesajukinompeh rattle unknown might be Stubbs 2140 *sawala (UA) with the metathesis compound Miller 1972 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology pisa-ppyh, pisa"-pin(-tta") red ochre, red face-paint clay inheritance *pisa, *paisa Numic not in Stubbs other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food oha-pin salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool tanihkun seed beater inheritance *taniku Numic See Kawaiisu; this is Duckwater form simplex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kwasun dress, shrit, clothes inheritance *kwasu Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 483 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material matsinka aboriginal bark skirt unique looks like a loan simplex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hupia" song inheritance *hupiya Numic Stubbs 2011 1985 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tytonax a spear unique is final x a typo? English is tytona, and no accusative is given simplex ty- may be an IP Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wisun string inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843 simplex Miller 1972 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material mokoccih bag, sack, handbag inheritance *maku… Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 115a WW %mok other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pihnaa-pin sugar semantic shift *pisa(L) Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2259 other complex pihnaah 'sweet' Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology natekwina to tell someone something inheritance *tykwi Numic Stubbs 2011 1876a derived Miller 1972 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pahmun, pahmon tobacco loan Yokuts into proto-central? WW %pa7mo simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material jantun winnowing basket inheritance *jata Numic can't find in Stubbs simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress mampuh, mampyh shoes, sandals inheritance *naNpa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 938a with consonant assim; Cherry Creek, Duckwater have nampyh 'foot-abs' other complex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics nattahsun medicine inheritance *natysuC Numic can't find in Stubbs simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material kohno cradle board, baby basket inheritance *kono Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 142 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation tyca-ttemah policeman unique compound temaah 'to obey' Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tuu-kkwasun soldier (old word) semantic shift *kwasu Northern Uto-Aztecan shirt' Hill/Miller kwa-12 phrase black-clothes Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation kyti housecat, cat loan English WW %kitty simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation aiti, aitikko bow and arrow, gun semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress kaiccoh hat inheritance *kaCcokoC Numic Stubbs 2011 1151 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tymukkun, tuhmun (Cherry Creek) inheritance Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture tusu” “metate” inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool poton “cruch, cane, walking stick, digging stick” inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture waattahaih unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture potton inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool aitikko “bow”; aiti “bow and arrow, gun” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool takkam-muchin “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
house other kahni inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
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