firewood

Semantic Field
other
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
leña
Meaning Portuguese
lenha

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
Cahuilla kelawat wood; woods; tree inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Seiler & Hioki 1979 Jane Hill
Cupeño kelawet firewood, stick inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Hill & Nolasquez 1973 Jane Hill
Luiseño kulaawut wood, sticks, etc. inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Eliott 1999 Jane Hill
Gabrielino kuta: leña, trees inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Hill Harrington notes 546 Jane Hill
Serrano kuçāt firewood inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a; S. thinks this is 2408 but loss of w is regular other complex Jane Hill
Kitanemuk kuča-t stick, pole, firewood inheritance *kutawi Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2409a other complex Anderton 1988 Jane Hill
Tübatulabal kuttukatt firewood inheritance *kut-ta Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2408 other complex K. Hill Tb>Eng Jane Hill
Bankalachi Toloim ko'-too gut firewood inheritance *kut-ta Northern Uto-Azteca Stubbs 2011 2408 other complex Merriam 49:185 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu missing missing Jane Hill
Chemehuevi kukwarI wood, palo, leña unknown *kukkwaC Stubbs 2011 2410 S. Numic only other complex Harrington Chemehuevi Noun List (K. Hill 1969) Jane Hill
Southern Paiute quqqwappI wood unknown *kukkwaC Stubbs 2011 2410 S. Numic only other complex Sapir Jane Hill
Southern Ute kUkwa-pY firewood unknown *kukkwaC Stubbs 2011 2410 S. Numic only other complex Givon Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone kunna" firewood, fire, firedrill, matches, something to burn inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Dayley 1989 Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone kuna" wood, firewood, burning wood inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Crapo 1976 Jane Hill
Comanche kunaA firewood inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Robinson & Armagost 1990 Jane Hill
Western Mono kUna wood inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute koona firewood inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Yerington 1987 Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok hyh:y- wood inheritance *şyş:-y- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:31; maybe Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:59 simplex Broadbent 1964 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok šy/š:y- wood inheritance *şyş:-y- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:31; maybe Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:59 simplex Freeland & Broadbent 1960 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok sys:y- wood; firewood inheritance *şyş:-y- Proto-Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:31; maybe Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:59 simplex Callaghan 1987 Jane Hill
Plains Miwok tumaj wood, stalk, stick inheritance *tumaj Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1971:28 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Lake Miwok wikíitumaj firewood inheritance *túmaj Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1970:75 and first part from Pmi *wyké- 'fire'? compound wíki 'fire' Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
Maidu c'á tree, wood, stik of wood inheritance *c'áh Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Nisenan c'a, c'a: tree, wood, stick inheritance *c'áh Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Uldall & Shipley 1966 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawelmani hides wood (for fire) inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts hidesh in Chaw? Gash? In Newman before p. 134, search; Harrington has Yawl hit'es 'post, leña' 2,97,0009 derived this is verbal noun derived by truncation; *hide:s 'gahter wood' (where * is 'root', not proto) Newman 154 Newman 1944 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi hitec c=sh wood inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts hidesh in Chaw? Gash? In Newman before p. 134, search; Harrington has Yawl hit'es 'post, leña' 2,97,0009 derived truncated verbal noun Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami 7etis wood inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yd, Yw forms derived Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
Washo má7ak/g wood unknown simplex Washo Project Dictionary Jane Hill
Wintu č'u:s wood, stick, club, log inheritance *č'us Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:83 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Yuki 7al wood, stick inheritance *7al Proto-Yukian Reconstruction is PNY; also 7al yi:kul' wood fire.instrument S&S 83 simplex Schlichter 1985 Jane Hill
Wappo hélhol firewood inheritance Proto-Yukian compound fire-wood Sawyer 1965 Jane Hill
Mutsun tappur wood unknown simplex Okrand 1977 Jane Hill
Esselen i7i wood unknown simplex Shaul 1995 Jane Hill
Salinan A Ta:/ka'at< Tá:k'ata Turner p. 70, 101 wood unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Salinan M Ta:/kaTa wood unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno pono7 wood, tree, stick inheritance *pono Proto-Chumashan tu-pâ'-na-ti-na (Henshaw) 'firewood'; Fages had tuxugo 'la leña', but R.C. insisted pono7 was only word simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno sapiwil'e7 kindling, firewood inheritance Proto-Central Chumash also pon' 'tree, stick, wood' e.g. wood on p. 299; note B. sapiyiw 'red-hot coal', sapixi 'kindle' derived su+api+wil=7i7 Applegate 1972 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7aqtïp'i7 firewood inheritance derived aqtïp 'to make fire' Wash 2001 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno pon' wood, tree, stick inheritance *pono Proto-Chumashan Merriam confirms 39:19 simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 7ily wood, stick, tree inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Couro & Hutcheson 1973 Jane Hill
Cocopa 7i: wood inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Mojave 7a7ii wood, firewood inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Yavapai 77í:tqWātča firewood inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH compound 77i: 'wood', tqwātči 'they light' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Kiliwa 7+ipa7 firewood, stick, wood, lumber unknown does this reflect PY *ii7?? derived Mixco 1985 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) haquéjöc firewood unknown compound ?? Does this have 'fire'? Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Kakua tɨ̀-kɨt tʉ̃̂; tɨ̀-kɨt inheritance Compound fire-clːtree.log See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Nheengatu yepeawa jepeawa inheritance Mello 2000 gives 'japeawa' as reflex of protoform *japeaßa Simplex See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin, PLE, Alyssa Wadley
Waorani tẽdẽ-wæ̃ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hodï kule ʰkule bo unique Also: kule Other complex ʰkule 'fire'; bo 'log, wood'? See Language page Brittany Weinstein
Yanomami kõã ãsho kõã ãʃo inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Compound kõã, “fire” See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomam kõã ãʃo kõã ãʃo inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Compound koa, “fire”; ãšo “unclear” See Language page Kelsey Neely
Ninam thalukuk tʰalukuk inheritance Proto-Yanomami/Yanomam Simplex See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kotiria picha (Waltz) piʧa (Waltz) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein
Cubeo peca; pecave peka; pekave inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Classifier -vɛ See Language page Tanja Baeuerlein; Alyssa Wadley
Tukano pekâ pekâ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Desano pea pea inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also: gũmu 'log' Simplex See Language page Addison M; Tanja Baeuerlein
Maihiki jeca ja xeka xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
Hup těg těg inheritance Proto-Nadahup Simplex See Language page Pattie Epps
Dâw beedur bæduh inheritance Proto-DYH Compare Puinave du; Kakua tʉ̃̂ Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Sikuani íso (CM72) inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Brittany Weinstein
Macaguan isó-t isó-t inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., Brittany Weinstein
Guayabero hĩ (R18) ʔi unknown Also: hĩ (Rivet 1918) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Pemon apok, keme, werke (A1981) apok, keme, weɾke (A1981) inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Alternate: apok, weɾke See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Akawaio abok kemee abɔk kɛme inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Other complex abɔk=fire; kɛme= ?? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Makushi apoʔ-keme (SIL) apoʔ-keme (SIL) inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross; Alyssa Wadley
Eñepa wahto wahtɔ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin; Alyssa Wadley
Yukuna siyá, jiyá sija, hijá inheritance Proto Central North Arawak from 'fire' Also: hijá Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Tariana tsié[e] tsié[e] inheritance Proto North Arawak from 'fire' Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wapishana ẓuwaakʰarɨ ẓuwaakʰarɨ inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
Baniwa ttidzéena t̪idzéena inheritance Proto North Arawak Derived t̪idzée “fire”, See Language page Ana Paula B.
Resígaro itsítsó itsítsó inheritance Proto North Arawak donor for Cofan siʔtsi? Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
Yir-Yoront thum fire, firewood inheritance *cuma pPaman Cognates meaning 'smoke' at least as far away as Gumbainggir; poss. also Pilbara thama 'fire' Barry Alpher
Ritharrngu ba:l loan direction unknown Rembarrnga Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu dha:dhi(y) unique Claire Bowern
Djinang dyuŋgi inheritance with semantic shift fire <> firewood Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul jungku doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Yawuru jungku; nimilkarr; rikarri inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa kungka: jungku inheritance Claire Bowern
Mangala murimuri loan direction unknown Yulparija Claire Bowern
Bardi nuurru semantic shift Claire Bowern
Rembarrnga pal-na loan direction unknown Ritharrngu Claire Bowern
Ngarluma thama doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri tyuŋku loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
Nyikina tyuŋku; ŋumal inheritance Claire Bowern
Yulparija waru inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta wika unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri warlu inheritance warlu lalka - dry firewood warlu lalka - dry firewood Patrick McConvell
Mudburra warlu inheritance Patrick McConvell
Jaru yityartkarru semantic shift <fire Patrick McConvell
Gurindji warlu inheritance Patrick McConvell
Gooniyandi wayanti unique fire Patrick McConvell
Bunuba winthali unique Patrick McConvell
Gajirrabeng wutya inheritance fire, wood inseparable prefix Patrick McConvell
Jingulu pupa unknown fire Patrick McConvell
Kija marne inheritance marne Patrick McConvell
Miriwung katyawulang unique fire, firewood Patrick McConvell
Achagua tʃitʃába tʃitʃába inheritance prob. rel. 'fire' See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco kitʃái, àicu míisíiri (àicu 'wood', míisíiri 'ripe, dry?') kitʃái, àiku mí:sí:ɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero ka(ɬi) (dp91), kaľ̥i ka(ɬi) (dp91), kaľ̥i See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wayuu siki Also means 'fire' 01.810. See Language page PLE
Yine čiči; hičima See Language page PLE
Paresi moitsati mujtsati unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano 'nereruka; ti'ahiki See Language page PLE
Trinitario tohɣeru To make firewood is -neriko. See Language page PLE
Baure ya'kis ja'kis unknown See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ic̷ei-c̷iwi i¢ei-¢iwi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Cha'palaa te Cf. 'tree stump' 08.720. See Language page PLE
Bora kʰoʔ-pa, kʰoó-kwa, kʰó-kʷaxkʰa, kʰó-βïḯrï kʰoʔ-pa, kʰoó-kwa, kʰó-kʷaxkʰa, kʰó-βɯɯ́rɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane kúúxo-ʔo {firewood-wood} kúúxo-ʔo {firewood-wood} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Apalai apotoimo, ipokony apotoimo, ipokonɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana wewe wewe inheritance See Language page PLE
Carijona wewe (wood, tree) M2000 inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Makiritare -keme-dɨ (IDS) -keme-dɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
Wai Wai o-wehto-rɨ o-wehto-rɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari wiwe wiwi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yabarana wah'to See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa ueta ueta See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca ja γa See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí kaa Also means 'tree/wood' 01.420. Colombia: kããnə. *Chibchan form is *'buʔ. See Language page PLE
Northern Emberá tɨbʉ onokó tɨbʉ onokó See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena 'tʰɨpɨ Also means 'fire' 01.810. See Language page PLE
Cuiva isó- (CM72) See Language page
Cofán si´tsi siʔtsi phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS See Language page Daniel Valle
Candoshi-Shapra sorama soɾama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro honto´ hontoʔ See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez equí ekí See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ê-ê (Alv44) ɨʔɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina fwei fwei unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Pumé kʰõdo See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave du du unique cf. Nadahup See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Ashuar chúpum, chápum ʧupum, ʧapum See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa chigkim tʃiŋgkim See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna chígkim tʃíngkim inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nukak tɨa inheritance See Language page
Yuhup dˀuh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect tɤːk̚ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses cuëte kuɨte inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo karo *Panoan *ka[a]ro. See Language page PLE
Katukina karo See Language page PLE
Pacahuara 'kařo d'Orb karu. Arm caru, karu. See Language page PLE
Shipibo-Konibo karo See Language page PLE
Yaminahua karo See Language page PLE
Chácobo karo karo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jipu xipu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua yanda janda See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá iamta iamta See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua yanda janda See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yanta yanta See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa mɨ' mɨɁ unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Bará pe'ka See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano hea hea See Language page Addison Martinez, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana naorõ, naurõ (tortoa de mandioca); 'pee (H&R) nãoɾɔ̃, nãuɾɔ̃ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna jea xɛa inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Yuruti pe'ká pe'ká See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana pe'ka pe'ka See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano peá peá See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tanimuca pe'ka pe'ka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo pee pee See Language page
Tuyuka pe'ka pe'ka See Language page D. Jagannathan, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja ᵽekʰá yukʰì ɸekʰá jukʰì See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje jẽka xẽkha inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona enca, jenca enka, henka inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya jeca hɛka See Language page Amanda Novak
Karitiana sõg sõg unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama ipia ipia inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi yapɛʔa japɛʔa inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché čãkã unknown See Language page PLE
Chiriguano ye-pe-a inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní ǰepeʔa See Language page PLE
Sirionó ɲea ɲea inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá jepeˀap jepeˀap inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina dyam̈oon,dyam̈oonjun dʲam̵õõ, dʲamõõhɯ̃ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Nɨpode Witoto ré.ï-ïe rέɯ-ɯɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto ré.ï.e, ré.ï-ïe rέ.ɯ.ɛ, rέ.ɯ-ɯɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto re.ï-ai rɛ.ɯ-ai unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Sanumá thalõkõ thalõkõ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Iquito járaqui háraki unique See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ayshawka ajʃawka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari tʃe (fire, wood) (Sousa2009) tʃe (fire, wood) (Sousa2009) See Language page PLE
Araona kʷa-ti Also means 'fire' 01.810. *Tacn form is *ka-ti. See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja kʷa-ki, eši inheritance See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo kwaki kwaki See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana kʷati See Language page PLE
Cavineña kʷa-ti kʷa-ti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara lawa pʰaya-ɲa-lawa See Language page PLE
Cayuvava 'bisi; ɨ̃kæ See Language page PLE
Itonama u-bari Same as 'fire' 01.810. See Language page PLE
Kwazá hi, hitsu, dodoja- (dodoja- specifically means "cut firewood") hi, hitsu, dodoja- (dodoja- specifically means "cut firewood") See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané 'c̷ih Same as 'fire' 01.810. See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima coˈo koˈo See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai tsipup tsipup doubtful loan Kamaiura jepeʔap See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang pĩ See Language page PLE
Suyá ywĩ-ŋró jwĩ-ŋró See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi pitxerakü pitʃerakø See Language page PLE
Chipaya ṣ̌up Cf. 'pole' 07.560. Uru-J form is para. See Language page PLE
Mocoví ḳoʔpaḳ Masc. form; same as 'wood' 01.430. See Language page PLE
Pilagá 'd-oleʔ l-asek Lit. 'prefix-fire 3pp-fuel'. See Language page PLE
Toba nodek l-asoḳ; l-ašik nodek is 'fire'; -asoḳ/-ašik mean 'fuel'. See Language page PLE
Lengua yant-apuk See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité yintapa See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet aɬpoŋha See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay -'ɬet See Language page PLE
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja -xoxpat ~ -oxpat See Language page PLE
Maca naxak (m.) Same as 'wood' 01.430. See Language page PLE
Nivaclé wat-kaxuy See Language page PLE
Ayoreo eero-'godeʔ See Language page PLE
Mapudungun mamɨlʸ Same form in Ranquel. See Language page PLE
Qawasqar afc̷ˀar Also means 'fire'. Sk, Bo, Cy, Li, Gui record kakas for Central QWS. SpS records afsar for South QWS. See Language page PLE
Selknam xàhwḳˀ See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'yēnoy; 'kˀāk See Language page PLE
Lokono ikhi-khodo ikʰi-kʰodo firewood Pet 1987:357 Camille Unger
Kariña ja'ty jaʔtɨ firewood Yamada 2010:744 Camille Unger