work

Semantic Field
other
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
trabajar
Meaning Portuguese
trabalhar

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone missing missing Jane Hill
Cahuilla -tuvxa/- (Sp.) loan S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok ta/whan-7e-, ta/whan:-e loan Jane Hill
Chemehuevi tyvi/jawi unique Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno talawaxach loan Wash 2001:51 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno saqwatspu/, tsaqwatspu JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno isuxuxmalits loka x'anwa “esta trabajando la mujer” unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa rar loan Jane Hill
Comanche tyry7aipy7, tyry7aity inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño tevxa'-0 [təvˈxaɁ] loan Jane Hill
Gabrielino xo7e:xo- unknown Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa tarrvahaarr [t̯arvaˈxar] loan Spanish Jane Hill
Kawaiisu wi7johwe-dy- unknown Jane Hill
Kiliwa t-i7-chhat “trabajo” unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tumahan inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ta/whal loan Jane Hill
Luiseño 7uwo/7u- unknown Jane Hill
Maidu tawa/l loan Jane Hill
Mojave tarvahaar= loan Spanish Jane Hill
Mutsun tawah (N) unknown O77:100, 143 Jane Hill
Nisenan tawal, tawhal (Sp) loan Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok tawhan-y-, tawhal-y- loan Jane Hill
Plains Miwok tawhal:e- (Sp.) loan Jane Hill
Salinan A ta/LxwaL (A), ta/lxwaltenax “work” loan Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) cati/cpan loan Jane Hill
Serrano tyhty-i inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok tawhal-nY, tawhan-nY loan Jane Hill
Southern Ute wyyka loan Jane Hill
Tübatulabal waahay-jyt (vi) loan Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone tytyai, tytye inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo ta/whal' loan Jane Hill
Washo didó:daʔášaʔi unknown Washo Project Jane Hill
Western Mono tawahani7i- loan Jane Hill
Wintu jura: inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai tha\rha_:r7i loan Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi tcow inheritance K07:253 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne c'o:w'o: “work, grasp continuously” N 87 inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
Yuki wi(:)T inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa déeñhi déeɲhi unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona həka (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo memeñʉ memejɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw wĩính' wĩɲ' unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano mohme-ri moʔme-ɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa -amohkayin-(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) -amohkajin-(-mɨ)(-mi) (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï bou unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani [tadabako] kæ loan Spanish trabajar See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup bɨʔ- bɨʔ- unique shared Yuhup See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua tèw unknown See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi esenyakaʔma (IDS) esenyakaʔma (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu puraki puɾaki inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam kẽa, otamo (EM72) kẽa, otamo inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki yoyi joji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon esenekama, t-etawere, tuapuese (A1981) esenekama, tetaweɾe, tuapuese (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Sanumá kalipolo (EM72) kalipolo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani nakuenaba (3) nakuenába unknown See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana hpáni hpáni unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano daʔrá daʔrá inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria da 're (trans.); da 'ra (intrans.) daʔɾe; daʔɾa inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam kĩa, ohotemo kĩa, ohotemo inheritance; inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami ohotamou, ohoteaɨ ohotamou, ohoteaɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna jápakaje, sápakaje hápakahe, sápakahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup bɨʔ bɨʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana irtji- unique Claire Bowern
Bardi moorrgoolon -gal- murrkulon -kal- inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Burarra jama loan Claire Bowern
Dhangu dhotju inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal dhotju Claire Bowern
Dhuwala dhotju unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari maranuru inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU ngankata unique Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang djama loan Makassar Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng X Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Gunin ˈŋɑyɑ ʼworkʼ ˈŋume ˈŋɑyɑ ʼworkʼ ˈŋume loan English Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu dhotju inheritance Claire Bowern
Gurindji waruk ma- loan Kriol Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr morrgol ~ murrgurr morrkol ~ murrkurr inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru warrag loan Claire Bowern
Jawi mooragool murrakul inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri wargam loan English Claire Bowern
Kija warrkam loan Kriol Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Miriwung X Claire Bowern
Mithaka [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mudburra warungali Claire Bowern
Mudburra warak loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini maranuru inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi X missing Claire Bowern
Ngarluma (<English. + marni-) Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl booragool <booragool> unknown Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi yuwa unique Claire Bowern
Nimanburru morgol morkol inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta warrkam(u) loan English Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta warrkam(u) loan English Claire Bowern
Nyikina marrgamgay, murrgul marrkamkay, murrkul inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul murrgu(v)l murrku(v)l inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi warka- loan English Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu wark loan Claire Bowern
Unggumi warrgumga warrgumga loan English Claire Bowern
Walmajarri warrkamma- loan Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru ngurrpi unique Claire Bowern
Warrwa murrgulyi murrkulyi inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy wardha loan Claire Bowern
Wunambal ˈworuku ˈŋiyɑŋɑ ˈworuku ˈŋiyɑŋɑ loan English Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu warkthun loan English Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha waka, wakana inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka nganindri unique Claire Bowern
Yawuru mulkula + mulkula + inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua ʃíakeri ʃíakeri unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco íbaidaca íbaidaka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero játata, jájajata hátata, háhahata See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana kaʔɨɖiɲam kaʔɨɖiɲam unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu ayata-waa See Language page PLE
Yine kamrɨrči See Language page PLE
Paresi haka haka unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano #NAME? See Language page PLE
Trinitario -'kwemtone See Language page PLE Also emtone.
Baure koto- koto- inheritance? See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ka-tuma-la ka-tuma-la inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa ['taawaš]-'ke-nu See Language page PLE From Span. 'trabajo'.
Bora wákimyéi (T98) kʷákʰimjéi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane dúdɨ́cámáaihi (W97) dúdɨ́kámáaiʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio eetrawazoomang etrawa'zomaŋ loan Spanish trabajar See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai irohmanohpõko irohmanohpõko unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana maminum maminum unique See Language page PLE
Tiriyó (j)oroko (j)oroko unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare tadawāhuɨ (IDS) tadawāhuɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo sanmaka-ri sanmaka-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai et-aΦička-ra et-aΦička-ra unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yabarana wa'ɾotaɾi (trabajo) See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa kanepa, tomare, temare, tarajuar, tomakare, tomákare, tosera, seposa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca ichosqua iʂoskua See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá trabahái, trahái trabahái, trahái See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena mimia- See Language page PLE
Macaguan nabʉ́rchit nabʉ́rchit unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán semañe sɛmaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra patáatamaama; tarávshtámaama patáatamaama; tarávʃtámaama unique; loan Spanish trabajar See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez nashï nashï See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna napuracüe (he works) [2, 3, 3, 2] napuɾakɨe doubtful loan Spanish trabajar See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina amia amia unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa inatrabajái (he worked) (Spanish loan) inatrabahái (he worked) (Spanish loan) See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke -baʌ -baʌ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé hãbepa See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-bep] bep doubtful loan, direction unknown Pumé See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar takákmastin takasmastin See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa takastasa takastasa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna takát takat inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect mo:h ka-ha-h'o uñ, mo:h ka-ha-hõj ni unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses chonuad tʃonuad inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo ɲuu mɨɨti See Language page PLE [ɲuu 'thing']. mɨac̷a-ti 'to have a lot of work'.
Katukina mɨʔɨ i- See Language page PLE
Shipibo-Konibo tɨɨ-ti; tɨɨ; yono-ti See Language page PLE
Yaminahua yono-kĩ See Language page PLE
Chácobo yonoko- yonoko- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua jivay; vay xivaj; vaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua tarawana tawaɾana See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá trabajai (Spanish loan) trabajai (Spaniʃ loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua tarabana (Spanish loan) taɾabana See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano llamkay ʎamkaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa a'dɨ'tɨh aɁdɨɁtɨh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Carapana paarique paaɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna moa-re moa-ɾe inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Tanimuca ba'irabo ri'ka ba'irabo ri'ka inheritance? See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje cho'omʉ dʒoʔomʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona yo'oji joʔohi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Kokama camata kamata doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi #NAME? #NAME? inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché [bapu] doubtful loan said to be loan from Guarani See Language page PLE
Chiriguano parawɨkɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní ᵐbaʔapo See Language page PLE
Sirionó ki̯ei̯ ki̯ei̯; taba taba i̯ ki̯ei̯ ki̯ei̯; taba taba i̯ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá porawɨkɨ porawɨkɨ inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina jooadyu hooadʲɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Murui Witoto maɨ́jɨde maɯ́hɯdɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito tarahuaajuuni (from Spanish 'trabajar') tarawaahuni (from Spanish 'trabahar') loan Spanish See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Wari taramaja (E&K97) taramaja (E&K97) See Language page PLE
Araona modo See Language page PLE *Tacn form is *modo.
Ese Ejja čako-čako- unique See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo a-kwe a-kwe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana modo- See Language page PLE
Cavineña mere-ya; me-re- (G71) mere-ya; me-re- (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara trawajaña (Spanish loan) tɾawaxaɲa See Language page PLE
Cayuvava hæ̃ræ See Language page PLE
Itonama mačɨhɨ; mačɨhɨʔke See Language page PLE Respectively: noun; verb.
Kwazá warañỹ- warañỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané karih'taki; karihtakiʔ See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE Respectively: masc.; fem.
Movima tih-ka-rim tih-ka-rim See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Kaingang rãnhrãj rãɲrãy See Language page PLE
Canela -yõʔtɔ See Language page PLE *Jê form is *ɲõ-tɔ. Maxacalí form is -ɲõɲc̷õŋ.
Suyá ywét jwét See Language page Rebekah Evans
Karajá aõmɨsɨ̃dəɨ̃ See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi nĩhõnõnõda nĩhõnõnõda See Language page PLE
Chipaya laŋš See Language page PLE
Mocoví r-oʔweenat-aʁan See Language page PLE Intrans. form.
Pilagá d-ʔonat-aʁan See Language page PLE Lit. '3pa-do/make-intrans.'.
Toba do-ʔonat-aʁan See Language page PLE
Lengua #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité nintaikamaha See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet nentamhaykamˀ See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay tačem-'ɬi See Language page PLE
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja -kixmen ~ -sixmen See Language page PLE
Maca #NAME? See Language page PLE
Nivaclé -kum; -kumxat; kumxayaš work; work; work https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo i'saa ye'ho-deʔ See Language page PLE Means 'grasp my surroundings'; cf. 15.710, 11.140. 'Hard work' is un̥u'si yu 'omeʔ, means 'feel very comfortable with'; 'to w. with eagerness' is oo yuhu'ɲa-meʔ, means 'to punish myself' 21.370.
Mapudungun kɨṭ͡ʀawa See Language page PLE From Augusta 1915.
Qawasqar arḳyawe See Language page PLE Also Ag records antˀeleke. Bo records kartola for Central QWS.
Selknam tehr; wòh; pòʔtàn; k-yohkenn See Language page PLE
Lokono nekhebo nekʰebo work Pet 1987:377 Camille Unger
Kariña emamin emamin work Yamada 2010:728 Camille Unger