ash

Semantic Field
environment
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
ceniza(s)
Meaning Portuguese
cinzas

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim tong'-ul 187 inheritance Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone ku-kkwi-ppyh “smoke, ashes” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla nisxish inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok jy/m:i- (hot ashes) inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi kuca-p(y) inheritance Press 1979 Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno 7alushpawat unknown Wash 2001:52 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno iqsha inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno 7al-ush-pawat inheritance A 193 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno t-qsanu, c-qsanu inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno 7ixsha inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
Cocopa xm7uL inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche etysipy unique Jane Hill
Cupeño weshki-sh [wəʃˈkiʃ] unique Jane Hill
Gabrielino ko$i:y, ku$i:y inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa 'empill [Ɂəmˈpɪɫ] unknown Jane Hill
Kawaiisu kuca-py inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa mituw unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk kukut inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok wi/ilok inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño te:lingi-sh inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu p'idu/si inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave ham'uuly inheritance Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Mutsun yo:kon unknown O77:61 Jane Hill
Nisenan jol unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute kutusiby inheritance Stubbs 08 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok sik:e- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok sik:e- inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan A Ta7a/i (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M TapaiH, Top'ai' unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) hant imac “earth middle” unknown Jane Hill
Serrano kuku-t inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute qut:ca-G “light gray; ashes” G is geminating transition inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok sik:e inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute kUchapY, kunavI inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal toongol inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone kuttuhupin, inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo he/lpipol' unknown Jane Hill
Washo t'sa/pu(7) unknown J1958:200 Jane Hill
Western Mono asiya/by/, esiya/by/, siya/by/ inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu bukul inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai (?)mhu\/(:)l, (?)mhu/(:)l inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami hapac inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi hapac (hapash) x inheritance K07:233 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne hiT'el (N1) and N 154 hit'el- inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
Yuki po7oT'el inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma xam7u:/ly H3:208 inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa wádzoɺe wádzoɺe doubtful loan, direction unknown Yabarana Carib 'wastu', 'watsu'; not found in other Arawak or Carib languages in database See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona werenə inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo ũacovʉ ĩakovɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw xu’ xuʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano nuja nuha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa tukəənə (IDS) tukəənə (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï i'neo unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani gõ-dãi unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup teg hɔ́w, tuh ('char') teg hɔ́w, tuh inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua tɨ̂̃-hǔ̃ʔ [wood-ash] inheritance See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi runuʔpɨ (IDS) runuʔpɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu tanimbuka tanimbuka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam tšɨpɨšik (EM72) tʃɨpɨʃik inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak hũũʔ2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
Pemon werunapue (A1981); weruna'pö (M2000) weɾunapue (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro ókóniigiJíhú ókóniigiJíhú unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá mašta pɨ (EM72) maʃta pɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani ipumana (3) inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana kádali kádali unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano nohâ nohâ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria niti; pichaca nuja (Waltz) niti; piʧaka nuja (Waltz) inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam yɨpušip jɨpuʃip inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami ushipë, yupu shi(pë), yupu una(pë) uʃipə, jupu ʃi(pə), jupu una(pə) inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna pai'ilá, pari'ilá paiʔilá, pariʔilá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup tuh tuh semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Gajirrabeng boonang loan Ngarinyin Claire Bowern
Gurindji puna unique Warlpiri Claire Bowern
Kija kawurn-pe loan Claire Bowern
Miriwung boonang loan Ngarinyin Claire Bowern
Walmajarri jumpul unknown Claire Bowern
Achagua ba:li ba:li inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco balìi, ibalìiná balìi, ibalìiná See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari pa'ari (Ramirez, 2001) pa'ari (Ramirez, 2001) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero jalítsi halítsi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana paɽitiʔi paɽitiʔi inheritance Proto North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B.
Mandawaka háli háli See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu paľiiʔi ~ paľiʔi See Language page PLE
Yine čiči-pahi See Language page PLE pahi is 'dust' 01.213, also used in 'pollen'.
Paresi niyehe nijehe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano c̷imapa See Language page PLE
Trinitario c̷mapa See Language page PLE
Baure po'ip (pl) po'ip (pl) unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá wehepe wehepe unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa ɲii-pe; 'huʔ-pe See Language page PLE Respectively: also means 'sand' 01.215; 'burn-rot/ remains/ excrement'.
Bora pá-čiíxʸï pá-tʃiíxʲɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane bai-gííxɨ bai-gííxɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio uuruumöröpö (ashes) urumö'röpö (ashes) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai oruno oruno inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Tiriyó əreinə əreinə inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare wedēnnə (IDS) wedēnnə (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo kamarastu kamarastu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai wemronho ~ wermonho wemronho ~ wermonho inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari ikry ikrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yabarana wastu,pɜɾɜmu-tunuspɜ, 'watsu pɨɾubu'tu See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Kalapalo lumbe lumbe unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca fusque, sucta puske, sukta See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí ibuungdyi See Language page PLE *Chibchan form is *bur-; *bu'rũ.
Northern Emberá ntarrá ntarrá See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena itʰa'bar̃e 'pʰora See Language page PLE Lit. 'fireplace dust'.
Guayabero weruʔsa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan ismár ismár unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cuiva ipúna ceniza, ash Huber & Reed 1992:57 Rebecca Khorram
Playero ipúmana See Language page Rebecca Khorram
Cofán cusepa kɯsɛpa See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra pozachi po̢satʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro tu'ca tuʔka See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez acoz akoz See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ta3ni3ma3ca5 (A58) tanimaka loan Tupi-Guarani, prob. Nheengatu See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina ahaane (pl) aha:ne unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa xatinjá xatinjá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke pãtakh(k)ohẽ(h) (RW52) unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé kjõdȩ pjurú See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave də-pɨp də-pɨp (pl.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar yukúu jũkũ: See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa pushurin puʃurin See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna yugkúnip jungkunip inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect Ɂo:j inheritance/semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Rio Negro dialect Ɂɔ:j See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses isisapuc isisapuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo či-mapo See Language page PLE *Panoan *čiʔi mapo.
Katukina ṣ̌iʔi mapo See Language page PLE
Pacahuara 'mišpo See Language page PLE Arm čiinepo, chii nepo.
Shipibo-Konibo čii-mapo See Language page PLE
Yaminahua čii mapo See Language page PLE Lit. 'fire + dust' 01.213.
Chácobo čiʔi-mišpo (literally "fire-dust", čiʔi is "fire" and mišpo is "dust") čiʔi-mišpo (literally "fire-dust", čiʔi is "fire" and mišpo is "dust") inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua pupujuru pupuxuru unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua uchpa utʃpa See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá uchpa utʃpa See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua ushpa uʃpa See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano uchpa utʃpa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa añari'ca', ohkura ɨ'ca'pheh (K76) aɲariʔsaʔ, ohkura ɨʔsaʔpheh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva emijõ emihõ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Bará pe'ka-wã See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano õhã́ õhã́ See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana 'ṍwã́ 'ṍwã́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna õja õxa inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti ũ'ã́ ũ'ã́ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana dũhũ'ã dũhũ'ã See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Tanimuca ũã ũã inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo õ'wã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka dũ'ã See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja nũã́ nũã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje ũhacʉta ũhakʉta inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona yë'të jɨʔtɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya huata wã'ta See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana isorokoj isoɾokoj unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Wayampi tanɛmu tanɛmu inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché krẽbo doubtful loan Itonama koropo See Language page PLE
Chiriguano taniᵐbu inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní taniᵐbu See Language page PLE Cf. 'dust' 01.213.
Sirionó tata-ba; ekusubu tata-ba; ekusubu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá tataopap (M2000) tataopap (M2000) inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina ohtiihi oʔtiiʔi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto hítu.egï hítu.ɛgɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto híθeɸo híθɛɸo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto huθeɸo huθɛɸo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito puquíti pukíti unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Wari topakon topakon See Language page PLE
Araona timo See Language page PLE *Tacn form is *-mo.
Ese Ejja kʷaki-maxo; kʷaki-powi unique See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo powi (plural "ashes"); kwaki-powi (Girard 1971) powi; kwaki-powi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana e-timo See Language page PLE
Cavineña moro; e-tiki-muru (G71) (moro is plural form; also means "dust" and "sand", and part of the words for "dandruff" and "flour") moro; e-tiki-muru (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara ḳʰilʸa See Language page PLE
Cayuvava čɔčɔkɔ See Language page PLE
Itonama koropo See Language page PLE
Kwazá hinũnã hinũnã See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané čim See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima βeʔe-βus βeʔe-βus See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai somot ~ somot̯ somot ~ somot̯ unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang mrẽj mrɛ̃y See Language page PLE
Suyá tusér tusér See Language page Rebekah Evans
Karajá brɨbɨ See Language page PLE Cf. 'dust' 01.213. Also dɨɨ.
Djeoromitxi kamẽ kamẽ See Language page PLE
Chipaya ḳʰup See Language page PLE
Mocoví lo See Language page PLE
Pilagá 'halo See Language page PLE
Toba alo See Language page PLE
Lengua tahap See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité tahap See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet taahap See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay itoh-'muk See Language page PLE Lit. 'fire-dust', 01.810 and 01.213.
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja taxlat (m.) See Language page PLE
Maca loʔ (m.) See Language page PLE
Nivaclé šnomax ashes https://ids.clld.org/ PLE Arribeños dialect has snomax.
Ayoreo 'uučuk-u'ru-i See Language page PLE u'ru-i is 'dust/particles' 01.213. Cf. 'flour' 05.550.
Mapudungun ṭ͡ʀufken See Language page PLE Cf. 'dust' 01.213. Ranquel form is livṭ͡ʀuvken.
Qawasqar aymaḳʰar See Language page PLE Bo, Sk record tasel for Central QWS.
Selknam ʔ-è-apl See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'hep See Language page PLE Also means 'dust' 01.213.
Lokono balisi balisi ash Pet 1987:350 Camille Unger
Kariña werùnòpo weruʔnoʔpo ashes Courtz 2007:426 Camille Unger