back

Semantic Field
body
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
espalda
Meaning Portuguese
costas

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim aw'-nŏl 175, unknown Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone kwa7im-pyh, kwain-pyh, wa7im-pyh; pi- inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla hulul inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok ke/:wy- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi ho(a) inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno myt inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
Chumash Cruzeno pikHnyky (waist to shoulder) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno myt inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno myty7 inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno myt inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
Cocopa Lama/k, 7ima/k inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche kwahi inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño -xutaxwi [xutaxʷi] inheritance Jane Hill
Gabrielino ah-tsahCH ( -cax ) inheritance CHM/MC241 Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa hetat [xəˈt̯at̯] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu howaa-vi inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa maq inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk tyhpic inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok lu/uma inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño ma:cha-t inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu ki\wi/ inheritance Jane Hill
Mojave imak inheritance Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Mutsun xop:o “back, upper back” inheritance C1962 Jane Hill
Nisenan kiw, k'iw inheritance Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pi- inheritance Thornes 03:356 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok 7ec:a- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok k2c2:j2- 2 is schwa unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A titc'o/7mo7 (A), unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M ti/tc'o/'m / acute accent, ' glottal, c is 'sh' unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) ipac unknown Jane Hill
Serrano -tyhpi-7 inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute oa-vi inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok ke:wy- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute O”aavI inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal oonoo-l unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone kwaimpy (of body) inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo k'u/lih inheritance Jane Hill
Washo a/shg unknown J 305 Jane Hill
Western Mono pi/qO “lower back” inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu jaj inheritance Jane Hill
Yavapai hita/t “spine, back”, Hita/t (GM) inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami pet-te/-kin unique Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi k'ewe:t inheritance K07:241,G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne wat'im inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
Yuki k'olk'i inheritance S&S1984 Jane Hill
Yuma 7ashlyma/k “my back” H1:29, saly-ma/k “back” H3:207 sh is [ʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
Baniwa ttáma t̪áma inheritance cognate Tariana-Baniwa only See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona igarɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo yapitʉmʉ japitɨmɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw mũxaáx mũxǎx unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano pᵾrᵾpᵾ pɨɾɨpɨ unknown See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa -mpae (IDS) -mpae (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï hwï unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani tækæ-yabæ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup cĩcĩ́ʔ ~cicíʔ doubtful loan into H-Y subgroup, from Tukanoan See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua tã̂ʔ doubtful loan Baniwa t̪áma See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi i-npo (IDS) i-npo (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu kupé, ku'á kupé, ku'á inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam tšaɨp (EM72) tʃaɨp inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak kolibaʔ doubtful loan, direction unknown W Tukanoan, Siona gɨrɨbɨ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki jetedada ja xetedada xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon yeda, mpakunta, mpai (A1981); inkai (M2000) dʒeda, mpakunta, mpai (A1981); iŋ'kai (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro váᵰí ván̟í inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá hõo hõo unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani juma (2), jumawi (13), húma (also has koϕé:ϕere which means 'shoulder blade') inheritance Sik-Cuiva-Playero group See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana sámise sámise inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano sẽʔêma sẽʔêma unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria sucunu sukunu inheritance See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam yaupə jaupə inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami humapɨ, yaipë humapɨ, jaipə doutbful loan Guahiban húma See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna wajleji wahlehi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup cĩʔæ̌h ~ciʔæ̌h doubtful loan Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana kuku inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi niya; [-ga] XXngl niya; [-ka] inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba thanybarna inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra jonama unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu buṉḏalŋu unknown Claire Bowern
Dhuwal muta Claire Bowern
Dhuwala muta unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari 2304 unique Claire Bowern
DiyariREU kuldu inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu muta unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu ḏiltji inheritance Claire Bowern
Djinang burr gungi unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng ngagaj unique NJ Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi wirla unique Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu muta unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji parntawurru unique Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr nik nik inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru jarda unique Claire Bowern
Jawi neear niyarr inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri 4914 unknown Claire Bowern
Kija therla- unique NJ Claire Bowern
Malyangapa Mal: tharna, inheritance Claire Bowern
Mangala mawurr unknown Claire Bowern
Miriwung ngagaj unique NJ Claire Bowern
Mithaka 2304 inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra juurna Claire Bowern
Mudburra ngakaj loan Claire Bowern
Ngamini 2304 inheritance? Claire Bowern
Ngandi gu-gark unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma murru inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl nēlgun niyalgun inheritance Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru nēg niik inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla parlarr Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta pirntirl unique Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta 4913 unique Claire Bowern
Nyikina ninyji, niyal ninyji, niyal inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul -i(g) -i(k) inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi ḏaṇa inheritance Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta kuku inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu diltji inheritance Claire Bowern
Unggumi -lardingga -lardingga doubtful loan Worrorra Claire Bowern
Walmajarri palpu unknown Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru kuku inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa ninyji ninyji inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy janda unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu diltji inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha 2304 inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi thumu inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka kuldru inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru niyakan niyakan inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua wóhna: wóhna: inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco wadàa (espalda inferior) wadàa (espalda inferior) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero tul'i tulʔi See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana baɽai baɽai unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu ta-sapɨ See Language page PLE Also ta-sapɨ-ľɨʔɨ, lit. '1st sing.-back-in/at'.
Yine tʸi See Language page PLE
Paresi ihiniri, ehene ihiniri, ehene unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano -keku; -čepa See Language page PLE
Trinitario -muiɣʔe; -ɣeku See Language page PLE The former also refers to the roof of a house. -čepo refers to upper part of back.
Baure 'čipi tʃipi inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa 'been'bušu; 'behči See Language page PLE
Bora má-ʔačï má-ʔačɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane yóobai jóobai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio apoi, eebiiyak (lower part of-) a'pɔɪ, ebi'yak (lower part of-) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect aurepë aurepɤ See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai mypa, opya mɨpa, opɨa inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Tiriyó (mï)ka (upper back) mɨka (upper back) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Mapoyo kasapai (bai-ri); pumï yë'bë (spine); yeku punu-'bë (lumbar) kasapai (bai-ri); pumʊ jɛ'bɛ (spine); jeku punu-'bɛ (lumbar) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai ∅-maši-rɨ ∅-maši-rɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari kadyhyry kadɨhɨrɨ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yabarana 'ehnum 'paiɾi, 'ɜhnum 'paiɾi See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa kujto, müka, mueka, muekacho, oka, onka, yinka, yüka, yümoja, yümosa See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Muisca gutaquyn γutakuɨn See Language page Daniel Valle
Barí kwĩ See Language page PLE Colombia: kuinə; 'upper back' is c̷i'dobarə.
Northern Emberá ẽŋkarrá ẽŋkarrá See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena e'kʰar̃a See Language page PLE
Guayabero peh matwɨ́ah-t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan hepʧí unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cuiva pé-ɨma, pehúma espalda, back Huber & Reed 1992:17 Rebecca Khorram
Playero pé-húma See Language page Rebecca Khorram
Cofán sepacco sɛpakho See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra kooshich kooʃitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Taushiro a'jonte'na'cu aʔxondɨʔnaʔku See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez tsinz tsinz See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna káwé kaβɛ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina hanuri hanuɽi unique compare Paresi ihiniri See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa stɨtɕá-xa stɨtɕá-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke -fʌdi -ɸʌdi unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé pʰutu kara See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-tum] tum unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar tuntúp, súuntai tuntup, su:ntaj See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa tuntup, sunturi tuntup, sunturi See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna tuntúp tuntup inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses cacho catʃo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo kaṣ̌o See Language page PLE *Panoan *ka-; *kaʔtɨ with related meanings 'bone, backbone'.
Katukina pɨmana See Language page PLE Cf. 'roof' 07.510.
Shipibo-Konibo pɨka; kaṣ̌o; pɨ- See Language page PLE
Yaminahua piči See Language page PLE
Chácobo ka-tɨ ka-tɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua dunu; runu dunu; runu unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua washa waʃa See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá wasa wasa See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua huasha waʃa See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano wasa wasa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa aheha yó'toh (K76) aheha yóʔtoh unknown See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva amana amana unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Bará huku'bíro See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano hɨdó-hɨ́á hɨdó-hɨ́á See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana hõ'kɨ̃́ hõ'kɨ̃́ See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna jᵾdojᵾa xɨdoxɨa inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti sokɨ̃́ sokɨ̃́ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana su'kũdũ su'kũdũ See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Tanimuca pẽ'tea pẽ'tea unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo hõ'kɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka suku'bí-ro See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja hṍkʰɨ̃́ hṍkʰɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje sõkʉñʉ sõkʉɲʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona guërëbë gɨrɨbɨ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya jete hɛ'tɛ See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana okyty okɨ̃tɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama yatukupe jatukupe inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi apɛ apɛ inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché pɨče unique See Language page PLE
Chiriguano (če-)kupe inheritance See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní ape; atukupe See Language page PLE
Sirionó ekite ekite inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá ˀape ˀape inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina juuhxo, juuhxomó (human), hɯɯʔxo; hɯɯʔxomó unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto heráïkï hɛráɯkɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto emódo, heráïkï (nape of neck), ɸekániko(lower) ɛmódo, hɛráɯkɯ(nape of neck), ɸɛkániko(lower) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto emodo ɛmodo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito n'ɨjina n'ɨhina unknown See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo ushiawku uʃiawku See Language page Becky Walker
Wari warašiʔ waraʃiʔ See Language page PLE 'Lower back' is hopayiši; 'upper back' is šonešiʔ.
Araona be-bakʷa; be-sese See Language page PLE -be is 'shoulder' 04.300. *Tacn forms are *e-bebaka; *basede.
Ese Ejja e-hakaxa unique See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo e-daa-sa e-daa-sa See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana biši See Language page PLE
Cavineña e-bebakʷa e-bebakʷa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara jikhani ati See Language page PLE
Cayuvava tɔkɔ; siire ~ siiri ~ sĩĩre; siki See Language page PLE
Itonama uh-pačačano See Language page PLE Refers to upper back. 'Lower back' is uh-wamučačačano. Extreme upper back is uh-wanispapano.
Kwazá etu, -bari, hebari, -tu etu, -bari, hebari, -tu See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané mœrehri'ka See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE
Movima ɗuɗu-kʷa ɗuɗu-kʷa See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai natu natu unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang pãnĩ pãnĩ See Language page PLE
Canela ii-tu See Language page PLE *Jê form is *tu; *tum.
Suyá tuken (dorso) tuken (dorso) See Language page Rebekah Evans
Karajá bərɔ See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi hükari høkari See Language page PLE
Chipaya tax See Language page PLE Uru-J form is tax.
Mocoví le-laḳ; l-apalatetari See Language page PLE Respectively: lower back and upper back.
Pilagá 'l-owiʔ See Language page PLE
Toba l-laḳ See Language page PLE Also means 'roof' 07.510.
Lengua #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité apkapok See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet eŋkapok See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay -hʷapu-ɬ See Language page PLE
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja -kyeyi ~ -syeyi See Language page PLE
Maca #NAME? See Language page PLE
Nivaclé -ɔyiʔš back https://ids.clld.org/ PLE Arribeños dialect is -aklaʔ.
Ayoreo giido'booi See Language page PLE
Mapudungun furi See Language page PLE Ranquel form is vɨri.
Qawasqar taḳʰay-ḳte See Language page PLE Also takʰay-tkal; kyot-kʰar, cf. 'behind' 12.011.Bo records kyotkʰar for Central QWS. Hy records tokʰol; Fi records tokʰal-kte for South QWS.
Selknam hàtèṣḳn See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'ok See Language page PLE Also 'oḳˀe, refers to 'los 2 muslos del lomo'.
Kanamarí -pori -pori costas Magalhães 2018:354 Maria Castillo
Lokono abo abo back Pet 1987:350 Camille Unger
Kariña japy japɨ back Yamada 2010:743 Camille Unger