rotten

Semantic Field
quality
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
podrido
Meaning Portuguese
podre

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Bankalachi Toloim tek'-nah 199 loan Jane Hill
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone pisi” pisi-ppyh “decayed, rotten, something rotten, pus, mold” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla pis'ish (that which is rotten) inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi piki/ V “to rot” inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno topshok'in unknown Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
Chumash Ineseno to-pHototon “to rot, fall apart” (to- diseased state) unknown A 362 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno tspaLhani (of wood) unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno tolmow unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa shax “to be rotten” inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche papYsipY inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño pisa'i-sh [pɪˈsaɁɪʃ] inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa weshah [wəˈşaɰ̥] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 7ataa-kwee-py loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Kiliwa sax (podrir) inheritance Jane Hill
Kitanemuk pishka7 inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok ku/uh (of meat) unknown Jane Hill
Luiseño pisa/7a- “to rot” inheritance Jane Hill
Maidu t'y/npe (as animal matter) unknown Jane Hill
Mojave isah= inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun pothenin “(it) rotted” inheritance O77:81, 211 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute pihi “rotten, of meat” inheritance Thornes 03:298 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok jepe-, inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok puse:na- (food), inheritance Jane Hill
Salinan M missing missing Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) czimpxa unknown Jane Hill
Serrano apiSqa7i inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok Toke-:muH- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute piki “be rotten” inheritance Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone pisi”, inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo k'u/pa loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Washo 7i/peshi loan J248 Jane Hill
Western Mono pihi- inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu julel loan direction unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai t?e/li “spoiling” unknown Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami pawt/-kan/-nah inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
Yuki loT'- unknown S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa pa, mokóme pa, mokóme inheritance; unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona ikətarɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo to rot: maume; pojeyʉ; ʉ̃roteyʉ maume; poxejɨ; ɨ̃rotejɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw dox dɔx inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano to rot: boa-ri boa-ɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa y-usuka-sa (IDS) j-usuka-sa (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï wali-bu unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani yõbæ̃-ĩ unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup d'ɔh- (v.) d'ɔh- (v.) inheritance See Language page Pattie Epps
Kakua mǔp/mǒp unique See Language page Katherine Bolaños
Makushi aa-kata-saʔ (IDS) aa-kata-saʔ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu uka uka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam tare (EM72) taɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Nukak duiʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
Maihiki pɨ̃ka-hĩ pɨ̃ka-hĩ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon itekasak, ike (A1981); ikö (M2000) itekasak, ike (A1981) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro amaa?kátshí amaaʔkátsʰí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá hote (EM72) hote inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani tsabána(tuxu-tsáeba, 'oler a podrido' - 'to smell rotten') inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana í:peri í:peri unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano boa- boa- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria ba báa inheritance E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam tare (EM72) taɾe inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami horepɨ, horepɨano hoɾepɨ, hoɾepɨano inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna majani mahani inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup d'ɔ̌h d'ɔ̌h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana murlu unique Claire Bowern
Bardi biini biini inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba muthura unknown Claire Bowern
Burarra -gulol unknown Claire Bowern
Dhangu barrpa(') inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal boḻuku Claire Bowern
Dhuwala boḻuku unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari thungka inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu boḻuku unknown Claire Bowern
Djapu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Djinang ḏuḻing unknown Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng bagoorlng unique Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi thoowoorndoo unique Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu boḻuku unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji puka loan Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr bi""n biin inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru buga inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri pirniny inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija nhuwul unique Claire Bowern
Malyangapa thungka loan Claire Bowern
Mangala bīninj inheritance Claire Bowern
Miriwung bagoolng unique NJ Claire Bowern
Mithaka thungka inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra buka inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra nungulyu unique Claire Bowern
Ngamini thungka inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi bagoolng unique Claire Bowern
Ngarluma ngurlungurlu Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl karrail <karrail> unique Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi thungga inheritance Claire Bowern
Nimanburru bi""n biin inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta pirniny inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta puka unknown Claire Bowern
Nyikina janngu janngu unique Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul bi""n biin inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi puka inheritance Claire Bowern
Pirriya thungka inheritance Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta kutya inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu barrpa Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu barrpa inheritance Claire Bowern
Walmajarri mantu inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru kuja inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa mandungirany; maandu mandungirany; maandu unique Claire Bowern
Wubuy nhuwul unique Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu ṉurrukayirri unknown Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha kutawirri, thungga inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi thungka inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka thungwa inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawuru bininy bininy inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua bádáiʒiú, iʒídui bádáiʒiú, iʒídui inheritance; unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco mùsumùsuìri mùsumùsuìri See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari matá matá See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero méteji(ji) métehi(hi) See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana dyɨpʰɨša-ʔu dyɨpʰɨša-ʔu unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
Wayuu itt-ɨ-sɨ See Language page PLE Also itt-ɨ-ši.
Paresi kaiyalahare kaijalahare unique See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Ignaciano -muyu; -ka-muyu-ka See Language page PLE
Trinitario #NAME? See Language page PLE
Baure poshe; posok poshe; posok unique See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ɨhɨ; ukuwa ɨhɨ; ukuwa unknown; doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani, cf. also Carib See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cha'palaa 'pete; 'peʔ-nu See Language page PLE Respectively: modifier; verbal form. Cf. 'defecate' 04.660. *South Barbacoan form is *peteN.
Bora tʰóókʰï-ne, rááráá, čʰáxaaβé-né tʰóókʰɯ-nɛ, rááráá, čʰáxaaβέ-nέ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane túúkɨ-no, núkúkuu-no túúkɨ-no, núkúkuu-no See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio akmooda aʔmoda unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Akawaio/Ingariko dialect ikɤi ikɤi See Language page Lauren Franklin
Apalai nuriame nuriame unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana mata mata loan Arawak See Language page PLE
Tiriyó ti-kɔta-e (rot) ti-kɔta-e inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare čə̄tāhəɨ (IDS) čə̄tāhəɨ (IDS) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Mapoyo sokopaapë (fruit); tuhtuhke (wood/other) sokopaapɛ (fruit); tuhtuhke (wood/other) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Wai Wai t-mata-ši t-mata-ši loan Arawak See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Yabarana tuhtuhta'sapo See Language page Ana Paula B., John Blaha
Yukpa tekói, tikói, tikope, tueme See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Barí ããnta See Language page PLE Colombia: buxšurə. *Chibchan form is *'dũ.
Northern Emberá mĩŋgía númʉa mĩŋgía númʉa See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Epena be'rau; pʰo'kʰee; mi'kʰia See Language page PLE Respectively: 'rotten; rotten plant material or wood; rotten food'.
Guayabero xoep ('frutas podridas' - 'rotten fruit', sáˀla 'herida infectada' - infected wound, xasái 'carne podrida' - 'rotten meat' inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Macaguan tutsép inheritance Proto-Guahiban See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cuiva tsábana podrido, rotten Huber & Reed 1992:341 Rebecca Khorram
Playero tsabána See Language page Rebecca Khorram
Cofán congomba koŋgomba See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra kochaari kotʃaaɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez camp kamp See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna ni2yi3xi3 (A58) nijiʔi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina setï setʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Camsa xanguána xanguána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
Andoke #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé tupuchjá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-kai] (high tone) kai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar káuru kauru See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa kauru kauru See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna kaujú, mámush kauxu, mamuʃ inheritance; unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Nadëb/Roçado dialect ʔaʃa:ɟ, ʔaʃa:j unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Matses pisen pisen inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Kakataibo pisi See Language page PLE
Katukina payo See Language page PLE
Shipibo-Konibo payo-ti See Language page PLE
Yaminahua payoko-mɨ-a See Language page PLE
Chácobo βoaṣ̌a; pisi βoaṣ̌a; pisi doubtful loan; inheritance S. Arawak, cf. Baure poshe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua purya (smells ~); puñu (~ corpse); -pu, -po (suff.) purja; puɲu; pu; po unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua ismu ismu See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá wabka wabka See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua ismushca ismuʃka See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano ismu ismu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Piaroa kuai'ca'a kuaiɁsaɁa unique See Language page Amanda Novak, Becky Walker
Sáliva bihlãchẽ biʔlãʧẽ unique See Language page Becky Walker
Bará boa See Language page Kelsey Neely, Tanja Baeuerlein
Barasano hogá-se hogá-se See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Baeuerlein
Carapana bóá- bóá- See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna similar: joga-rise 'to rot' xoga-rise inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yuruti bóa- bóa- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Waikhana aʔ'ba- aʔ'ba- See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Siriano bo'á- bo'á- See Language page Ana Paula, Kelsey Neely
Tanimuca ra 'ba ri'ka ra 'ba ri'ka unique See Language page Kelsey Neely
Tatuyo bo'á- bo'á- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Tuyuka 'bóa 'bóa See Language page D. Jagannathan, Paulina Franco, Ana Paula B.
Waimaja bo'á(-), bo'á-ro bo'á(-), bo'á-ro See Language page Kelsey Neely
Koreguaje vʉʉsomʉ vʉʉsomʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona pũʔka-hi pũʔka-hi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Secoya pocaji põ'kahi See Language page Amanda N
Karitiana nãm nãm inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama pua pua inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi nɛ̃ nɛ̃ inheritance See Language page PLE
Aché mɨda unique See Language page PLE
Chiriguano -h-ũu unknown See Language page PLE
Paraguayan Guaraní ituǰu; tuǰu See Language page PLE
Sirionó eai̯; ereĩ; emano; eroorẽ (emano refers to rotten rice or manioc; eroorẽ refers to rotten meat) eai̯; ereĩ; emano; eroorẽ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá itsatsak, itsar~em (M2000) itsatsak, itsar~em (M2000) unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina dsoou (to rot; meat) dzooɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Nɨpode Witoto θabí-de, rḯpai-de θabí-dɛ, rɯ́pai-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Minica Witoto θabi-de, rḯɸai-de θabi-dɛ, rɯ́ɸai-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Murui Witoto θabi-de, rïɸai-de θabi-dɛ, rɯɸai-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito mucuúja (used for meat); puquícu (for things other than meat, like logs) mukuúha (used for meat); pukíku (for things other than meat, like logs) inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo mukaka mukaka See Language page Becky Walker
Wari šowuru ʃowuru See Language page PLE
Araona iwi; oli; c̷oto See Language page PLE Cf. 'nose' 04.230. *Tacn form is *iwi-.
Ese Ejja -ʔiwi; -tai inheritance See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo kia-ʔiwi; e-ʔiwi (Girard 1971) kia-ʔiwi; e-ʔiwi See Language page Joyce McCormick
Tacana iwi-da-; horo-horo See Language page PLE The latter refers to such things as wood or cloth.
Cavineña e-riri; iwina-ya; poc̷o; hakona-ya e-riri; iwina-ya; počo; hakona-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara ñusata ɲusata See Language page PLE
Cayuvava čuhu ~ čuuha; hɨ See Language page PLE Also põnõ; poto; rikaβã.
Itonama woroʔtʸa See Language page PLE
Kwazá ho- ho- See Language page Joyce McCormick
Mosetén-Chimané fo'koi See Language page Joyce McCormick, PLE 'Stinking'.
Movima ɗon̉-ra-ni ɗon̉-ra-ni See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai xeʔne xeʔne xeʔne xeʔne unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang kòrèg kɔrɛŋ; kɔriŋrɛŋ; kunãɲ See Language page PLE
Karajá irɔ See Language page PLE
Djeoromitxi to, here to, here See Language page PLE
Chipaya moxkči See Language page PLE
Mocoví ni-čigaʔ See Language page PLE
Pilagá ni-čiʔya See Language page PLE
Toba n-čiga See Language page PLE
Lengua #NAME? See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité antahapki See Language page PLE
Sanapaná/Dialect Enlhet aktahapma; altektahapma; alkoŋnammaɬkaʔ See Language page PLE
Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay na'het See Language page PLE
Chorote, Iyojwa'ja ifʷyesam See Language page PLE
Maca ɬoḳˀoḳxiʔ See Language page PLE
Nivaclé ɬok-xi rotten https://ids.clld.org/ PLE
Ayoreo tara'taa-i; tara'taa-ge See Language page PLE 'It is r.' tara'taʔ. 'To be r.' pu'n̥ui; pu'n̥ua 04.441; verbal form is oo pu'n̥uik.
Mapudungun funa-n See Language page PLE Ranquel form is vunan-.
Qawasqar aḳs-na See Language page PLE From Ag. Cf. 'stinking' 15.260. Ag. records fkanoks-na; Gui records paskes.
Selknam wàčè, wal See Language page PLE
Tehuelche 'posḳnk See Language page PLE
Lokono boadonoan boadonoan rotten Pet 1987:369 Camille Unger
Kariña tykota tɨkota rotten; spoiled Yamada 2010:816 Camille Unger